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Book Of Prayer (Salaah)

C1.0 SALAAH

C1.1 After ensuring that your belief and faith is correct, the biggest obligation of all obligations is Salaah. There has been many messages in the Qur'an and Hadith in relation to the importance of Salaah. Whoever does not believe it as an Obligatory aspect i.e. Fardh is a Kafir, and those who do not pray it are great sinners and will be thrown into hell in the after life, also in the event of an Islamic leadership, the king should execute those who do not pray Salaah.

C2.0 At what age should children be taught Salaah?
C2.1 When a child reaches the age of seven he should be shown how to pray Salaah. When the child reaches the age of ten, they should be mad

C2.1A QUALIFICATIONS OF SALAAH

Before we show you the way in which Salaah should be prayed, we will first of all show you the six conditions/qualifiers that must be performed, otherwise the Salaah will not begin. These are known as the 'Shara'it-e- Salaah and are as follows;
1. Cleanliness
2. The covering of the body
3. Time
4. Facing Qibla
5. Intention
6. The call to start Salaah (Takbeer-e-Tahrima)

C2.2 The first qualification is cleanliness. This means that the person praying Salaah (which will now be referred to as Namazee) must have their body, clothing and the place where Salaah is going to be performed, clean from impurities such as urine, stools, blood, alcohol, dung, animal excretion, etc. Also the Namazee must not be without bathing or ablution.

C2.3 The second qualification is covering of the body. This means that the male's body must be covered from the navel upto and including the knees. The female's body must be completely covered except for the face, the hands below and including the wrists and feet below and including the ankles.
C2.4 The third qualification is time. This means that whatever time is allocated to a particular Salaah, that Salaah is prayed. For example, the Fajr Salaah is prayed from the break of dawn to before sunrise. Dhuhr Salaah is prayed after midday to the time when there are two shadows to everything except for the original shadow (mid afternoon). 'Asr Salaah is prayed from when there are two shadows until sunset. Maghrib Salaah is prayed after sunset to when the natural light disappears. 'Isha Salaah is prayed after the natural light has disappeared until before the break of dawn.

C2.5 The fourth qualification is the facing towards Qibla. This means to face towards the Kabah (in Makkah).

C2.6 The fifth qualification is intention. This means that whatever Salaah is being prayed for whatever time i.e. Ada, Qadha, Fardh, Sunnah, Nafl etc. to make a firm intention in the heart for that Salaah.

C2.7 The sixth qualification is Takbeer-e-Tahrima. This means to say Allahu Akbar and start the Salaah. This is the last qualification and once said the Salaah begins. If you then say something to someone or eat something or drink something or perform any action which is against Salaah then the Salaah will break. The first five qualifications must remain from when the Takbeer-e-Tahrima is said, to until the Salaah is completed, otherwise the Salaah will not count.

C3.0 THE FIRST QUALIFICATION: MEANING - CLEANLINESS

Method of performing Ablution (Wudhu)
C3.1 When you want to perform ablution, follow these steps -:
(a) First of all make the intention of ablution and then say 'Bismillla Hirrahma Nirrahim' and wash both hands upto the wrists.
(b) Then perform Miswak (clean teeth with a wooden stick).
(c) Then by using the right hand, gargle three times and wash the inside of the mouth, ensuring that the water reaches upto the throat and also all the gums and underneath the tongue. If there is anything stuck on or between the teeth, then release it.
(d) Then by using the right hand suck up the water in the nose until it reaches the bone and clean the insides of the nostrils by using the left hand thumb and little finger, three times.
(e) After this, take water into the cup of both hands and wash the whole of the face three times, from the start of the forehead where the hair begins to grow, down to and including the chin. Also from the right hand ear lobe to the left hand one, ensuring that no place is left dry. If you have a beard then also wash this and also run your fingers through it. However, if you are wearing an Ehraam then don't run your fingers through the hair.
(f) Wash both arms upto and including the elbows three times. Washing the right arm first three times, then the left arm three times.
(g) Then perform Masah once, meaning join the fingertips of both hands together leaving out the index fingers and the thumbs on both hands. Then run water on these six fingers and then brush them over the hair, starting from the forehead and ending at the back of the neck. This is done once, ensuring that the palms of the hands and the index fingers and thumbs do not touch the head. Now bring fourth the hands by using the palms and rubbing them at either side of the head. Then clean the inside of the ears by using the index fingers and the back of the ears using the thumbs. Now wash the back of the neck by rubbing the back of the hands on either side of the neck, but ensure that the hands do not go on the throat as this would be Makrooh (disliked).
(h) Then wash the right foot, from the toes upto and including the ankles, three times. Then perform the same three times for the left foot. Ensure that you wash between the toes.
(i) The ablution (Wudhu) is complete and so pray this Dua ;
'Allahummaj 'Alni Minattawwabeena Waj 'Alni Minal Mutatahhireen'
(j) Then take the water and stand up and drink some, as this is cure for the illnesses. Then look towards the sky and pray; 'Subhanaka Alllahumma Wa Bihamdika Ashhadu Alla ilaha illa Anta Astaghfiruka Wa Atoobo ilaik' Also pray the Kalima Shahaadah and Sura Inna Anzalna. It is also better if you pray Bismilla and the Durood/Salawat when washing every part, also pray Kalima Shahaadah.
C3.2 The above is the method of performing Ablution. Out of these some actions are obligatory and if they were missed the ablution would not count. Some aspects are Sunnah and to miss deliberately would be an act of punishment. Some aspects are Mustahhab and to miss them would mean a reduction in reward.

Obligatory aspects of ablution (Wudhu)
C4.0 There are four point in ablution that are obligatory.
1. To wash the face. Meaning from the beginning of the forehead where hair starts growing upto the bottom of the chin. Also from one ear to the other ear. To ensure that the skin of the face is washed once leaving no part dry.
2. To wash both hands upto and including the elbows once.
3. To perform Masah of one quarter of the head. Meaning to run wet hands over a quarter of the head and at least so that the hair gets wet slightly.
4. To wash both feet upto the ankles once.

C4.1 The above four aspects are obligatory in ablution. Except for these, whatever methods have been reported are either Sunnah or Mustahhab. There are many Sunnahs and Mustahabs in ablution and if you would like to know these in detail, then consult larger books such as 'Bahar-e-Shariah' or 'Fatawa-e Razvia'.

C4.2 To wash a part means to at least pour two drops of water over each part. To spread water over the parts lightly and not washing the part thoroughly and therefore the ablution or bathing would not count.

C4.3 To wash the skin above and below the lips, nails, eyes, the hair on eyelashes, eyebrows, the skin underneath jewellery and even the hole pierced in the nose, the skin underneath the mouchtache hair and beard hair and every part or every part in the four parts mentioned is obligatory. If a pinpoint of it was left dry then the ablution will not count.

C4.4 It is obligatory to perform ablution for Salaah, Sajda-e-Tilawat or touching the Qur'an and it is necessary (Wajib) to perform ablution to perform Tawaf.

Makroohats (dislikes) of ablution
C5.0 Meaning the aspects that should not be done in ablution.
(a) To perform ablution with the leftover water of ablution or bath performed by a female.
(b) To spill water on a dirty place.
(c) To perform ablution inside the mosque.
(d) To spill used ablution water back into the bucket that contains the ablution water.
(e) To spit out water or mucus etc. towards Qibla.
(f) To talk of worldly things without cause.
(g) To waste water unnecessary.
(h) To use so little water so that all or some of the Sunnahs would be missed.
(i) To wash the face with one hand.
(j) To throw water on the face.
(k) To let ablution water drops on clothing or inside the mosque.
(l) To miss any Sunnah of ablution.

C6.0 Aspects that break the Ablution
(a) Excretion of stools
(b) Urinate
(c) To break wind from behind
(d) For worms or stones to be excreted from the front or rear
(e) For the leaking of semen water or sperm.
(f) For blood, puss to be released and for it to flow from it's position.
(g) For a mouthful of vomiting of food or water, or a slight amount of vomit of blood.
(h) To become insane or to pass out
(i) To faint
(j) To be drunk or lost in control so much that the feet stagger
(k) Except for the Salaah-e-Janaaza, to laugh so loud that the person standing next to you can hear you.
(l) To go to sleep.
(m) Mubashart-e-Fahisha (meaning, for a man to touch a woman's private parts with his erected penis with lust or to touch another man's private parts with his erected penis, or for a woman to touch another woman's private parts with her private parts without a cloth in between these parts.

C6.1 In all the above situations the ablution (Wudhu) will break.
C6.2 If water is released from a hurting eye or puss that is released will break the Wudhu, and it is also an impurity and therefore if it touches an item of clothing, then it is necessary to clean.
C6.3 To laugh in Salaah that only you hear it yourself and no-one near you hears the laughter or voice then the Wudhu has not broken, however, the Salaah will break.
C6.4 If you smile in Salaah so that only your teeth show but no voice whatsoever is heard then neither the Wudhu or Salaah will break.
C6.5 Whatever moisture that leaves a man's body but does not break the Wudhu is not an impurity. For example the blood that stays in it's position or vomit that is not a mouthful are all clean.
C6.6 Saliva, spittle, sweat and dirt are not impurities and therefore clean (Pak). If these items are stuck on the body or clothing, then the Salaah will count but you should have them cleaned as this is better.
C6.7 The tears that come out due to crying do not break the Wudhu nor are they an impurity.
C6.8 By showing your knees or body, or to look at your own or someone else's body or touch someone's body does not break the Wudhu.
C6.9 If a milk drinking child vomited and if it is a mouthful then it is an impurity. If it touches s omething and is more than a Dirham (approx. size of a fifty pence piece) then it will make it impure. If the milk had not gone all the way in the stomach but had come back out from the throat then it is clean.
C6.10 Whilst in the middle of performing Wudhu it breaks then perform the Wudhu again, and if the water that is held in the palm of the hand and you release wind then this water is useless and do not use it to wash any parts.

C7.0 Method Of Bathing
C7.1 The method of bathing is as follows;
(a) Perform the intention of bathing (Ghusl) then first of all wash the hands upto the wrists three times.
(b) Then wash the private parts, whether there is any impurity stuck on them or not.
(c) Then wash any part of the body which has impurity stuck on it.
(d) Then perform Wudhu as performed in Salaah but do not wash the feet. However, if you are sat on a stool or a stone etc. then wash the feet also.
(e) Then rub water into the body as you would rub oil.
(f) Then wash the right hand shoulder three times.
(g) Then wash the left hand shoulder three times.
(h) Then wash the head and all of the body three times.
(i) Then move away from the place of bathing and if you did not wash the feet when performing Wudhu, wash them now.

C7.2 Do not face the Qibla when bathing.
C7.3 Ensure that you rub your hands with water all over the body whilst scrubbing.
C7.4 Do not bathe where someone can see you. If this is not possible then it is necessary for you to cover the body from the navel to the knees (for men). If this is not possible then perform Tayammum (C22.0).
C7.4 Do not talk when bathing or pray any prayers. After bathing, to dry the body with a towel is perfectly allowed.
C7.5 To bath naked in a careful hidden place (where no one can see) is allowed. It is very important that women are very careful of this.
C7.6 After bathing wear clothes as soon as possible.
C7.7 Whatever aspects are Sunnah and Mustahhab in Wudhu are also the same in bathing except, if you are bathing naked then do not face Qibla and if you are wearing a cloth then there is no problem. There are three obligatory aspects in the method of bathing that has been shown, without which the bathing will not count and one will remain unclean and the rest are either Sunnah or Mustahhab and should not be left out, but if they are left out the bath will still count.

C8.0 Three obligatory aspects of bathing
There are three obligatory aspects in bathing, and are as follows;
1. To perform mouthwash so that every single part of the inside of the mouth from the beginning of the lips upto the throat is cleaned with water. Water must reach the gaps between the teeth, the gums, all the sides of the tongue and the edge of the throat. If you are not fasting then you must gargle so that the water reaches clearly all parts. If there is anything stuck in the teeth (like strands of meat, the skin of a betel nut, the leaf of a paan etc.) then unless it is impossible to release or would cause serious pain it is necessary that they are removed, because without doing this the bath won't count and therefore the Salaah won't count.
2. To clean the nose out with water. Meaning to suck up water into both nostrils until it reaches the bone, so that not even a hair or it's equivalent size remains dry, otherwise the bath will not count. If the nose is pierced then the water must reach the hole as this is also necessary. If mucus has dried in the nose then to release it is necessary and to wash the nostril hair is also necessary.
3. To wash every single part of the body. Meaning to make sure water washes all the body upto and including the soles of the feet, ensuring that every hair and every pimple is washed, because even if only one hair or it's point's equivalent remains dry, the bath will not count.
C8.1 A lot of people bathe by wearing an unclean cloth and think by bathing they will become clean and at the same time wash the cloth that they are wearing. This is not the case because when they rub their hands on it they actually spread the impurity all over and therefore make the whole body, cloth and the container of water unclean. This is why before bathing it is important to wash the impurity stuck on the body or on the clothing, otherwise they won't clean the body but in fact make everything that they touch unclean. This is possible if they are bathing in a river or sea and the impurity is such that it will flow away without the need for rubbing or scrubbing, if this is not so then it will remain a problem.

C9.0 What aspects makes it obligatory to bathe

There are five aspects that make it obligatory for a person to have a bath, and they are as follows;
1. The ejaculation of sperm from it's place with lust.
2. To have a wet dream. Meaning nocturnal emission that is the releasing of sperm whilst sleeping.
3. The head of the penis to enter the vagina, whether it be with or without lust, with or without orgasm, the bathing would be obligatory on both.
4. To become clean from menstrual pause (period).
5. To become clean from blood after child birth.

C9.1 If sperm was ejaculated from it's place but not due to lust, i.e. it was done by lifting a heavy load or falling from a height, then to bathe is not obligatory, however, the Wudhu is broken.
C9.2 If semen dropped but was very thin and it came out whilst urinating or on it's own accord without lust then the bath does not become necessary but the Wudhu will break.
C9.3 To bathe on Fridays, Eid days, on the day of Arafah (9th Zil Hajj) or when wearing the Ehraam is Sunnah.

C10.0 Things that can and cannot be done when bathing is obligatory
C10.1 It is strictly forbidden to enter a mosque, to perform Tawaf (of Kabah), to touch the Qur'an, or any part of the Qur'an whether it is in sections or volumes [Hadiya, Alamgiri] , to pray the Qur'an whilst viewing it without touching it, to pray the Qur'an verbally, to wear or touch a ring with a word of the Qur'an written on it when it is obligatory for you to bathe.
C10.2 If the Qur'an is wrapped in it's cloth (Juzdaan) or has a napkin wrapped around it, then there is no problem touching it without bathing [Hadiya, Hindiya]. If a verse of the Qur'an is prayed but the intention was not to pray as part of the Qur'an, then there is problem. For example, to say 'Bismilla Hirrahma Nirrahim' for auspiciousness, or to say 'Alhamdu Lillahe Rabbil Aalameen' for thankfulness or to pray when in trouble or worried 'Inna Lillahe Wa Inna Ilahi Raji'oon' or for praise the Surah Fatiha was prayed or Aayatul Qursi was prayed or another verse was prayed, however, the intention was not to pray a verse of the Qur'an, then there is no problem [Hindiya etc.].
C10.3 To touch the Qur'an or any verse of the Qur'an without ablution (but not in need to bathe) is forbidden, however to pray it verbally is no problem.
C10.4 To see the Qur'an, whether the words are seen and then prayed in the heart is allowed in any situation.
C10.5 To touch the Fiqha, Hadith or Tafseer books is Makrooh.

C11.0 Which water is allowed to bathe or perform ablution and which is not
C11.1 Rainwater, sea water, ocean water, river water, stream water, canal water, well water, large pool or large lake or flowing water, snow and hailstone water is all allowed to be used to bathe or perform ablution or to clean impurities.

C12.0 The rules and clarification of flowing water
C12.1 The clarification of flowing water is the water that flows a piece of straw, this water is clean and can clean other things. The water will not become impure if some impurity is added in it, so as long as the water's colour, smell and taste does not change.
C12.2 If the colour, smell or taste is changed by the impurity then the water has become impure (napak). This water will now only become clean when the impurity reaches the bottom of the waterbed and all three aspects are reverted back to it's normal situation. Otherwise, there is more water added in which would flow the impurity away and/or change the colour, smell and taste back to normal.
C12.3 If the clean addition has changed the colour, smell and taste then you can perform Wudhu or Ghusl (ablution or bath) until the clean addition changes to impurity.

C13.0 The rule and clarification of a large pool
C13.1 Ten arms in length and ten arms in width where water is held in known as a 'Dadarda' or large pool. It is still counted if the length is twenty arms in length and five arms in width, or it is twenty five arms in length and four arms in width, meaning it is at least twenty arms square in total. If the pool is circular then it must be approximately thirty five arms in diameter and it does not have any part of the ground above water in that diameter, this is also counted as a large pool. It will not become impure by having impurities added in, until the colour, smell or taste does not change due to the impurity.
C13.2 If an impurity falls in a large pool that cannot be seen, e.g. alcohol, urine, etc. then you can perform ablution from wherever you want. If an impurity falls in that can be seen, e.g. stools, dead animal etc. then it is better to perform ablution away from where the impurity is.
C13.3 Many people can perform ablution together in a large pool, even though the used water is falling back in. However, mucus, phlegm, spittle should not be added back in the water as it is against purity.

C14.0 Rule of used water
C14.1 The water that has fallen from performing ablution or bath is clean but is not allowed to be used to perform ablution or bath.
C14.2 If a person who has not performed ablution, dips his hand or finger or fingernail or any part of the body which is washed in ablution, whether purposely or by mistake, in a tub of water which is less then a large pool (Dadarda) then that water cannot be used to perform ablution or bath. In the same way, if a person is in need of having a bath and any part of his body touches the water purposely or by mistake, then that water cannot be used to perform a bath or ablution. If the part of the body or hand has been washed, then there is no problem.

C15.0 Advice on making use of the used water
C15.1 If a hand is put into the water or you want to use the used water then the way of re-using it again is to add fresh clean water more than the amount of water that is held in the container or to add clean water at one side so that the used water is flowed away, then you can use the new water to have a bath or perform ablution. If water is held in small pots and you are unaware of any impurities added in them, then ablution is allowed.
C15.2 If an infidel informs you that this water is clean or unclean, the water will remain clean as this was it's original situation.
C15.3 Ablution cannot be performed with water squeezed from a branch of a tree or fruit water, such as water from a melon or mango or sugarcane.
C15.4 If a small amount of a clean item is added to water, such as a rose, jasmine, saffron, soil or sand then it is allowed to use the water to have a bath.
C15.5 If such colour or saffron is added to water so much that the due to the colour the clothes would change to that colour, then it is not allowed to perform ablution or have a bath with this water.
C15.6 If milk is added to water and the colour of the water changes to the colour of the milk, then it is not allowed to perform ablution or have a bath with this water.

C16.0 Water of a well.
(This section has been left out as it is not deemed necessary to learn this knowledge in this day and age and in these countries, such as UK America, Africa etc.)

C17.0 IMPURITIES
C17.1 Rules of impurity, Ghaliza
C17.2 There are two type of impurities, Ghaliza and Khafifa. If impurity Ghaliza gets on your clothes and is more in size than a Dirham (fifty pence piece), then to clean it is compulsory, without cleaning it your Salaah will not count. If the impurity on your clothes is the same size as a Dirham, then to clean it is necessary (Wajib) and therefore if Salaah is prayed, you must repeat it as the Salaah is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and to pray it again is Wajib. If the impurity is less in size than a Dirham, then to clean it is Sunnah and if Salaah is prayed, it will count but is against the Sunnah and to repeat it is better.
C17.3 If the impurity is solid such as stools, dung, excrement etc. then the measure of a Dirham is in weight. If the impurity is liquid such as urine, alcohol etc. then the measurement of a Dirham is in length and width. According to Shariah the weight of a Dirham in this text is four and a half grammes and in the text of Zakah is three and a fifth grammes. The size in length and width of a Dirham according to Shariah is the inside of a palm (and therefore approx. size of a fifty pence piece) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C18.0 Rules of impurity, Khafifa
C18.1 Whatever part of clothing impurity Khafifa gets stuck to (e.g. sleeve, collar, trouser leg etc.) or part of the body (e.g. hand, arm, leg etc.) and if it is less than a quarter of the whole item, then the Salaah will count. If it is more than a quarter than the item, then without washing it the Salaah will not count [Alamgiri etc.].
C18.2 The difference of impurity Ghaliza and Khafifa is when it gets stuck on clothing or the body. However, if an impurity, whether Ghaliza or Khafifa is added to a liquid such as water, vinegar, milk etc. then even if one drop is added the whole content becomes impure, as long as it is not a Dadarda (large pool).

C19.0 What items are impurity Ghaliza
C19.1 Whatever item is discharged from a person's body that would break the Wudhu or Ghusl is impurity Ghaliza. Such as:

a) faeces, b) urine, c) flowing blood, d) puss, e) mouthful vomit, f) blood from menstrual pause, g) blood from childbirth, h) blood discharge, i) sperm, j) semen (thin), k) water from a hurting eye, l) navel or stomach water which comes out due to pain, m) flowing blood from any land animal whether Haram or Halal including small reptiles blood such as lizards, n) fat of a dead animal,
C19.2 Meat of a dead animal and any faeces or urine of a Haram four legged animal such as:
a) dog, b) cat, c) tiger, d) cheetah, e) vulture, f) fox, g) wolf, h) donkey, i) ass, j) elephant, k) pig l) and horse dung etc.
C19.3 Also faeces of any Halal four legged animal such as:
1. Cow or buffalo dung, 2. Goat, 3. Camel, 4. White antelope, 5. Stag, 6. Deer dung, 7. Also dung of those birds that do not fly high such as chicken, duck, whether they are large or small.
C19.4 Any type of alcohol or juice that would make someone lose their sense.
C19.5 Also faeces and urine of a snake and also meat of a wild snake and a wild frog who has flowing blood and whether they have been slaughtered and their skin whether it has been boiled.
C19.6 Also meat of a pig and it's bones, skin and hair whether it has been slaughtered. All of the above is impurity Ghaliza [Alamgiri etc.].
C19.7 The urine of a milk drinking child male or female is impurity Ghaliza. The fact that is commonly known that the urine of a milk drinking child is clean is totally wrong [Qazi Khan, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C19.8 If a distressed lion cub vomited milk and it was a mouthful, then it is impurity Ghaliza.
C19.9 The blood of a lizard or chameleon is impurity Ghaliza.
C19.10 An elephant's trunks phlegm is impurity Ghaliza. The saliva of beasts such as dogs, cheetah and other four-legged beasts is impurity Ghaliza [Qazi Khan].
C19.11 If impurity Ghaliza mixes with impurity Khafifa, then all of it becomes Ghaliza.
C19.12 If there are various drops of impurity Ghaliza on a piece of clothing and individually it does not amount to a Dirham, however, when collated together it is the same size or more than a Dirham then the rule of a Dirham applies. The same rule applies to impurity Khafifa.

C20.0 What items are impurity Khafifa
C20.1 Whatever animal's meat is Halal, such as:
a) a cow, b) bull, c) buffalo, d) ram, e) goat, f) camel, g) white antelope etc. their urine and a horse's urine is impurity Khafifa.

C20.2 Also those bird's meat which is Haram (whether it be a bird of prey) such as:
a) crow, b) eagle, c) falcon, d) hawk etc. their droppings is impurity Khafifa [Hindiya etc.].

C20.3 Milk of Haram animals is impurity Khafifa, however, milk of a female horse is clean but is not allowable for drinking [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C20.4 The Halal birds that fly high such as:
a) Pigeon, b) dove, c) starling, d) water fowl, e) geese etc. their droppings are not impure.
C20.5 The droppings and urine of a bat are both clean [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C20.6 The blood of fish and animals of water and small mites and mosquitoes is clean [Hindiya etc.].
C20.7 If very small droplets of urine like the size of a pinpoint get on your clothes or body, then they will remain clean [Qazi Khan].
C20.8 If the clothing has them sort of small droplets and then it drops into water, the water will remain clean [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C20.9 If blood comes out due to injury but stays in it's spot and does not flow, then it is clean [Bazaziya, Qazi Khan]. The blood that has remained in the meat, spleen and liver is clean and if these items are mixed in flowing blood then it is impure and will need to be washed before making it clean [Hindiya, Bazaziya etc.].
C20.10 If you are praying Salaah and there is a bottle in your pocket containing urine, alcohol, blood, then the Salaah will not count [Minya etc.].
C20.11 If you have an egg in your pocket whilst praying Salaah and whether the inside of the egg is turning into blood the Salaah will count [Minya etc.].
C20.12 If after performing excretion or urinating you clean the parts with a handful of sand etc. and then you perspire sweat and the clothing gets wet, they will not be unclean [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C20.13 If the smoke from impurities gets on your clothes, they will not become unclean [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
C20.14 The mud in the path is clean as long as you are not aware of any impurities being in it and if Salaah is prayed with this mud on your clothes or feet, it will count, but it is better to clean it off [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C20.15 If water is passing in a stream on the pathway and some of it splashes on your clothes, the clothes will not be impure, however, it is better to clean them [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C21.0 FOOD LEFTOVERS AND PERSPIRATION (SWEAT)

C21.1 Whose leftovers are clean?

C21.2 Human's leftovers (whether they are need of bathing or a woman who is on her menstrual cycle or still bleeding after childbirth) are clean [Khaniya, Hindiya).
C21.3 The leftovers of infidels is also clean, however, you should refrain from it. In the same way, mucus, phlegm, saliva are also clean but people should avoid contact with them. You should believe it belongs to a very bad infidel [Hindiya etc.].
C21.4 The animals whose meat can be eaten, whether they be four legged or birds, their leftovers are clean, for example:
a) cow, b) buffalo, c) bull, d) goat, e) pigeon, f) pheasant etc.
C21.5 The chickens which are free range and therefore can peck impurities, their leftovers are Makrooh (disliked), and if they are caged, then their leftovers are clean.
C21.6 The leftovers of a horse are clean [Hindiya etc.].
C21.7 The animals whose leftovers are impure are;
a) pig, b)dog, c) tiger, d) cheetah, e) wolf, f) elephant, g) vulture and h) other carnivorous animals [Hindiya, Khaniya].
C21.8 Animals that live in the house such as:
a) cats, b) mice, c) snakes, d) lizards etc. their leftovers are Makrooh [Khaniya, Alamgiri].
C21.9 Leftovers of species that live in the water are clean, whether their birth was in or out of the water.
C21.10 The leftovers of birds of prey such as;
a) eagle, b) falcon, c) owl etc. are Makrooh.
C21.11 The leftovers of a crow are Makrooh [Bahar].
C21.12 If an eagle, falcon, hawk or owl are kept as a pet and used for hunting and you are aware that there is no impurity stuck in their beak, then their leftovers are clean.
C21.13 The leftovers of donkeys and ass is doubtful and therefore water cannot be used to perform Wudhu.
C21.14 If leftover water is clean then you can use it to perform ablution or have a bath, however, if a person whom it is obligatory to have a bath, drinks water without first cleaning his mouth, then Wudhu is not allowed with that leftover water because the water has been infected.
C21.15 Whilst there is clean water available, it is Makrooh to use Makrooh water, however, if the only water available is the Makrooh water, then there is no harm. To eat Makrooh leftovers for a rich person it is Makrooh, for a poor person who has no choice, there is no harm. Whilst there is clean water available, it is not allowed to use doubtful water, and if the only water available is the doubtful water then you should use it for ablution or bathing and also perform Tayammum. In this situation it is necessary to make the intention of water and Tayammum, as an intention for just water or just Tayammum would not be sufficient.
C21.16 You should not eat doubtful food or water.
C21.17 If doubtful water is mixed with clean water, and if the clean water is more in quantity then it is allowed to be used for bathing and if it is less in quantity, then it is not.
C21.18 Those who's leftovers are impure, their sweat and saliva is also impure. Those who's leftovers are clean, their sweat and saliva is also clean. Those who's leftovers are Makrooh, their sweat and saliva is also Makrooh.
C21.19 If the sweat of a donkey or mule gets on your clothes, they will remain clean regardless of the quantity.

C22.0 TAYAMMUM
C22.1 If you have not performed ablution or in need of a bath but do not have access to water, the you must perform Tayammum. There are a few situations for not having access to water.
1. C22.2 You have such an illness that by using water to perform ablution or have a bath it will make the illness worse or would delay the recovery, and this is not just an assumption but you are sure about it. Either you have tried and found out about it or a pious Muslim doctor has given you this advice, then Tayammum is allowed.
2. C22.3 If it is just an assumption that the illness will get worse or a wrongdoer, infidel or non qualified doctor has advised you then Tayammum is not allowed.
C22.4 If the illness gets worse due to using cold water, but is okay when using warm water, then you must use warm water to perform ablution or have a bath because Tayammum is not allowed. However, if you cannot get warm water then you can perform Tayammum. Also if it is the case that during cold times the illness gets worse but is fine during warm times, then perform Tayammum in the cold times and when the warm time comes, perform ablution or have a bath with water in readiness for the cold times. Whatever Salaah has been prayed whilst with the Tayammum is not necessary to be repeated.
C22.5 If by pouring water over the head affects the illness, then bath with water below the neck and perform Masah for all of the head.
C22.6 If there is a particular part of the body which is affected when using water, then perform Masah over that part and wash the rest of the body with water.
C22.7 If a particular part is affected even by performing Masah, then put a piece of cloth over it and perform Masah over the cloth.
C22.8 All the corners of the wound where water will not have an affect must be washed as this is o bligatory and also lift any bandage or the corners, however, if by lifting the bandage it will affect the wound then perform Masah over the wound.
3. Where there is no sign or knowledge of water for a full square mile the Tayammum is allowed.
C22.9 If there is a thought that there is water within a mile, then you must search for it as Tayammum is not allowed. If you did not search for water and performed Tayammum and then prayed Salaah, later you found water then you must pray the Salaah again after performing ablution. If however, you did not find water then the Salaah will count.
C22.10 If you are praying Salaah and you see someone with water and think that if you asked them they would give you the water, then you must break the Salaah and ask for the water.
4. The weather is so cold and you are truly confident that by bathing you will either die or get ill and you have no medicine available that will cure your cold, then Tayammum is allowed.
5. You have the fear of an enemy that if they see you they will kill you or steal your possessions or you owe them money and are poor and they will get you imprisoned, the Tayammum is allowed. You see a snake near the water and fear that it will bite you, or you see a tiger and fear that it will maul you, or there is a bad person there who will rape you then Tayammum is allowed.
6. You are in a jungle and have no bucket and rope that you can collect the water, and then the Tayammum is allowed.
7. You are thirsty and have water but are aware that if you use it for performing ablution or having a bath, you will suffer with thirst or you have an animal with (whether it be a dog which you are not allowed to keep) and are aware that it will suffer thirst or after some time, and your journey is a long one without knowledge that water may be available later, then Tayammum is allowed.
C22.11 You have water but require it to mix flour for food then Tayammum is allowed. If water is required to make a soup, then Tayammum is not allowed.
C22.12 You have stuck either on your body or clothing some impurity and is obligatory for you to clean, you only have enough water to either clean the impurity or perform ablution, then you must first clean the impurity and then perform Tayammum. If Tayammum is performed before it will not count and after cleaning the impurity you must perform Tayammum again.
8. The water to purchase is expensive. Meaning whatever the going price is the seller is asking for twice as much then Tayammum is allowed. However, if there is not a big difference, meaning less than double then Tayammum is not allowed.
9. If by searching for water you will get lost from your group or you will miss your train, then Tayammum is allowed.
10. You are in doubt that if you perform ablution with water you will miss the Eid Salaah either the Imam will perform Salaam or the time will reach midday, then Tayammum is allowed in both situations.
C22.13 If you think that by performing ablution with water your time for praying the latter Sunnahs of Dhuhr, Maghrib, 'Isha or Ju'ma will go or your time for the Salaah of Chast will be missed, then perform Tayammum and pray them.
11. If you are not the organiser of a funeral procession and fear that if you wait to perform ablution you will miss the Janaza Salaah the Tayammum is allowed.
C22.14 You have gone to sleep inside a mosque and then are in need of having a bath (bathing has become obligatory for you e.g. had a wet dream) then perform Tayammum and come out of the mosque, to delay is Haram.
C22.15 It is not allowed to perform Tayammum to touch the Qur'an or perform Sajda-e-Tilawat or Sajda-e-Shukr when access to water is available.
C22.16 The time is so short that if you perform ablution or have a bath the Salaah will become Qadha, then perform Tayammum and pray the Salaah and after have a bath or perform ablution and repeat the Salaah as this is necessary.
C22.17 A woman has become clean from her menstrual cycle or childbirth bleeding and has no access to water, then perform Tayammum.
C22.18 You have only enough water to perform ablution, however, you are in obligation to have a bath, then perform ablution with the water and perform Tayammum for bathing.

C23.0 The method of Tayammum
C23.1 After making the intention of Tayammum, say 'Bismillahirrahma Nirrahim' and press both hands on to the ground which contains items of pure substance. If a lot of substance gets stuck on the hands then hit the hands together so the excess is shaken off. Then with these hands wipe over the whole face. Repeat the action again and wipe over both arms from the fingernails to and including the elbows, and this is the Tayammum completed.
C23.2 The wiping of the head and feet are not performed in Tayammum. There are only three aspects that are obligatory in Tayammum, the rest are Sunnah.

C24.0 Obligatory (Fardh) aspects in Tayammum

C24.1 To make the intention. Meaning to have the intention of performing ablution or bath or both to gain cleanliness. If the intention of Tayammum is made after hitting the hands on the ground, then the Tayammum will not count. The intention of Tayammum in the heart is obligatory (Fardh), also it is better to say it with the tongue. For example, Say "I am performing Tayammum to rid of the impurities of being without bathing or being without ablution so that my Salaah will be allowed" then say 'Bismillah 'ir' 'Rahman''ir' 'Rahim' and hit the hands on the soil.
C24.2 To rub your hands all over the face so that no hair or skin will remain untouched, otherwise the Tayammum will not count.
C24.3 To rub your hands over both arms including the elbows. If any part is left untouched then the Tayammum will not count.
C24.4 It is necessary to rub your hands over the hair of the beard or mouchtache or eyebrows.
C24.5 The same area is applicable as when performing ablution, except Tayammum is not done inside the mouth. Whatever lips show after closing the mouth must be rubbed.
C24.6 When hitting the hands ensure that they are not clapped. The way to do this is put one thumb over another thumb and join both hands together so that the excess drops off.
C24.7 If the soil has not reached between the fingers then it is obligatory to run the fingers between each other (Khalal) otherwise it is Sunnah. The same applies to the beard hair.
C24.8 If in one Tayammum the intention of both a bath and ablution is made, then this is sufficient as the Tayammum for both will be accepted.
C24.9 The Tayammum of a bath and an ablution is done in the same way.

C25.0 Materials that can and cannot be used for Tayammum
C25.1 Tayammum can be done with material which is from the earth, and whatever is not from the earth cannot be used to perform Tayammum.
C25.2 Whatever material that cannot be changed or melted or softened by burning is from the material of the earth and can be used to perform Tayammum. Therefore:
a) soil, b) dust, c) sand, d) lime, e) antimony, f) sulphate, g) brimstone, h) slate, i) brick dust, j) stone, k) jasper, l) turquoise, m) carnelian, n) emerald and other precious stones etc, can all be used to perform Tayammum even if they do not have dust on them.
C25.3 It is necessary that whatever material is used for Tayammum that it is clean, meaning from impurities or has had impurities on it.
C25.4 Whatever item has had impurity dried on it and has no more effect of the impurity left still cannot be used to perform Tayammum, however can be used to pray Salaah on.
C25.5 If there is suspicion that it may have been impure at one time is unnecessary and therefore has no effect.
C25.6 You cannot perform Tayammum with ashes.
C25.7 If ashes are mixed in with earth and there is more earth, then Tayammum is allowed, otherwise not.
C25.8 Tayammum is allowed with wet soil as long as the soil has overcome with water.
C25.9 If a piece of wood or clothing has so much dust on it that when putting the hand on it, it makes a mark the Tayammum is allowed.
C25.10 Tayammum is allowed by using a cemented wall [Bahar-e-Shariah etc.].
C25.11 Baked Brick is allowed to be used for Tayammum [Bahar-e-Shariah etc.]
C25.12 Tayammum is allowed when the earth or stone turns black from fire. Also if stone turns into ash then Tayammum is still allowed.

C26.0 Actions that break Tayammum
C26.1 Whatever actions break the ablution or make bathing necessary also break the Tayammum. The additional aspect is to have power over water again will also break the Tayammum.
C26.2 If you past a position where water is available within a mile then the Tayammum will break as it is not necessary to actually reach the water, however, if you were asleep when you went past the position, then the need for Tayammum will not break.
C26.3 If an ill person performed Tayammum instead of bathing but is now much healthier that if he did have a bath with water it would not harm him, then the Tayammum will break.
C26.4 If you found enough water that you could wash the parts that are obligatory in ablution once each, then the Tayammum will break and if the water is less than that, then it won't break. The same applies if you found enough water to perform the obligatory aspects of bathing once then the Tayammum of bathing will break, otherwise not.
C26.5 If you performed one Tayammum for both bathing and ablution and then you performed an act that would break the ablution or you find enough water so that you can perform ablution or you become well from illness that if you performed ablution it would not harm you, then the Tayammum allowed for ablution will go but the Tayammum allowed for bathing will remain.

C27.0 WIPING OVER SPECIAL SOCKS CALLED KHUF

C27.1 If someone is wearing special socks they would therefore when they perform Wudhu, do not wash their feet but in fact just wipe their wet fingers over the Khuf then this is allowed.
C27.2 If bathing is obligatory for you, then you cannot perform Masah (wipe) over the Khaf.
C27.3 There are a few qualifications for performing Masah;
1. The Khuf are long enough that the ankles are covered. If they are a few fingers short but the heel is covered, then the Masah is allowed.
2. They are stuck to the feet, so that when wearing them you can walk freely.
3. They are made from leather or at least the sole is made from leather and the rest made from other thick coated material.
(a) The socks worn in India (and UK etc) which are made from either cotton or wool cannot be wiped over, it is obligatory to take them off and wash the feet.
4. They must be put on after performing Wudhu. Meaning if you put them on and had not performed Wudhu, then you must take them off when you perform Wudhu.
(a) If they are worn after performing Tayammum, then to wipe over them is not allowed.
5. They must not be worn when bathing is obligatory on you, or wear them and then bathing becomes obligatory for you.
6. They must be worn only for a maximum fixed time, and this is for a non-traveller one day and one night (24 hours) and for a traveller three days and three nights (72 hours).
(a) From when the first time the Wudhu breaks the time starts. For example after performing Wudhu you wear the Khuf and then your Wudhu breaks at Dhuhr time, the twenty four hours would start from then. I.e. for a non-traveller the next day Dhuhr would be the full time and for a traveller the fourth day Dhuhr.
7. They must not be ripped more than the feet's three small toes in size or when walking open more than that gap.
(a) If the Khuf were ripped or the seam opened but three fingers could not be seen, however, when walking more than three fingers could be seen then the wiping over them is not allowed. Meaning that in a ripped Khuf if more than three fingers can be seen then wiping (Masah) is not allowed otherwise it is.
(b) It doesn't matter much if the Khuf has a ripped part which is over the ankles. The measurement of ripping is from below the ankles.

C28.0 Method of performing Masah (wiping) over Khuf
C28.1 The method of performing Masah (wiping) over the Khuf is to stretch the right hand and wet three small fingers and from the start of the top of the Khuf from the toes and wipe and it is Sunnah to go upto the shins. Perform the same for the left Khuf.
C28.2 There are two (Fardh) obligatory aspects in performing Masah over the Khuf;
1. Every Khuf's Masah must be at least the same size as the three small fingers.
2. The Masah must be on top of the Khuf.

C28.3 There are three Sunnahs in performing Masah;
1. To use the hands three finger's full length.
2. To stretch the fingers and wipe all the way upto the shins.
3. When performing the Masah keep the fingers stretched apart.

C28.4 It is allowed to perform Masah over English style leather boots if the ankles are covered [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C28.5 It is not allowed to perform Masah over the Amama (turban), the Burkha and Naqab (veil).

C29.0 What aspects breaks the Masah over the Khuf
C29.1 The actions that break the Masah (wiping) over the Khuf are as follows;
(a) Whatever actions break Wudhu also break the Masah.
(b) The Masah will finish as soon as the time has finished. In this situation it is sufficient to just wash the feet rather than perform whole of the ablution again.
(c) If you take the Khuf off, then the Masah breaks, whether you may have only taken one off.
C29.2 If you have a wound or corn or any other illness on parts the Wudhu that need to be washed and if by flowing water on them it will cause you problems then lightly perform Masah over them. If this is not possible then put a piece of cloth over the wound and perform Masah over this, if this cannot be done then it is forgiven and can be left out. If you have medicine on the wound then it is not necessary to clean out the medicine, just flowing water over it would be sufficient.

C30.0 MENSTRUATION - PERIOD

C30.1 What is menstruation?
C30.2 After a female becoming a teenager, the blood that comes out from the vagina on a fixed time basis and is not due to childbirth or illness, is known as menstruation or period (Haiz). If the blood is due to illness then it is known as Istihaza, if it is due to childbirth then it is known as Nifas.
C30.3 The time for menstruation is at least three days and three nights, meaning a full seventy two hours, if it is less by even a minute it is not menstruation, and the maximum is ten days and ten nights.
C30.4 If the blood stops just less than seventy-two hours then it is not a period but Istihaza. However, if the period started from sunrise and finished on sunrise three days later, then this will be recognised as a period, otherwise any other starting time is measured as one day being twenty four hours [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C30.5 If the blood came for more than ten days, then if this is the first instance that blood has come, then for the ten days it is menstruation and the rest it is Istihaza. If you have had a period before and the time was usually less than ten days, then whatever the time it used to come for is menstruation and the rest is Istihaza. For example, if the usual time for menstruation is five days and this time the blood has come for ten days then it is all recognised as menstruation and if it has come for twelve days, then the first five days is menstruation and the other seven is Istihaza. If there is not a regular pattern, meaning that sometimes the blood comes for four days sometimes for five, then whatever amount of days was the last period, this will be counted on this occasion.
C30.6 It is not necessary that blood continues coming all the time, if it starts and stops for them days it is still recognised as menstruation.

C31.0 Age when menstruation begins
C31.1 The age of the menstruation cycle beginning is at least nine and the finishing age is fifty-five. The female is known in this age is called 'Aa'is' and this age is called 'Sun'aayas' [Alamgiri].
C31.2 If blood comes before the age of nine, then it is Istihaza. In the same way if blood comes after the age of fifty-five then it is also Istihaza. However, if blood comes regularly as it did before the age of fifty -five and is the same colour then it is menstruation.
C31.3 If a pregnant woman has blood, then this is Istihaza. Also whilst having childbirth as long as the child has not come out more than half way then this is Istihaza.
C31.4 There must be a gap of at least fifteen days between two periods and also between Nifas (childbirth blood) and a period there must be at least fifteen days gap. If a person finishes her Nifas and it has been less than fifteen days before blood appears, then this is not Haiz but Istihaza.
C31.5 Menstruation will be recognised when blood comes out of the opening of the vagina. If a piece of cloth is stuck so that the blood does not come down but remains stuck inside, then until the cloth is removed it will not be recognised that the period has started, she will pray Salaah, keep Siyam.

C32.0 Colour of menstruation
C32.1 There are six colours of menstruation;
1. Black, 2. Red, 3.Green, 4. Yellow, 5.Brown 6.and clayey. The white discharge is not menstruation.
C32.2 If there is the slightest dirtiness in white discharge within the ten days then this is menstruation. If their is dirtiness remaining in the white discharge after ten days then for a person who has a habit of five days, then the five days is menstruation and the rest is Istihaza if the total goes over ten days. If the person does not have a fixed time habit then upto the ten days is menstruation and anything over is Istihaza.
C32.3 If a woman never in all her lifetime had menstruation or was only ever less than three days and night then she will remain clean. If a woman only ever had menstruation for three days and night once and then never had bleeding then except for the one instance she is always clean.

C33.0 NIFAS - MEANING BLOOD AFTER CHILDBIRTH

C33.1 Definition of Nifas and time
C33.2 Nifas, meaning the blood discharged by a woman after childbirth. It has no minimum time, meaning even if one drop of blood comes out from when the child has half come out then this is Nifas. The maximum time for Nifas is forty days and nights.
C33.3 The recognition of Nifas is from when the child has half come out. Notice. In this text, whenever the words childbirth are used it means from when the child has come out half way or more.
C33.4 If blood comes out for a woman more than forty days then if this is their first child or she cannot remember how long the blood came from a previous childbirth, then in both situation the full forty days and nights is Nifas and the rest is Istihaza. If the woman can remember the length of the last Nifas bleeding then upto them days is Nifas and anything over them days (as long as the total goes over forty days) is Istihaza. For example, if someone's habit for Nifas is thirty days and this time the bleeding was for forty-five days then the thirty days is Nifas and the rest is Istihaza.
C33.5 Before the delivery of the pregnancy, if blood comes, then it is Istihaza until the child is half born.
C33.6 If some blood comes before the delivery of the pregnancy then it is Istihaza and if some blood comes after then this is Nifas, this is as long as their has been some parts of the child's body being created otherwise if it is the menstrual cycle, then it is so, otherwise it is Istihaza.
C33.7 If blood sometimes come and sometimes it doesn't as long as it is all within the forty days it is Nifas, whether the gap is longer than fifteen days or not.
C33.8 The order for the colours of Nifas is the same as mentioned for the colours of Haiz.

C34.0 RULES OF HAIZ AND NIFAS

C34.1 It is Haram to pray Salaah or to keep a fast (Siyam) whilst in menstruation or bleeding after childbirth (Haiz or Nifas).
C34.2 Salaah is forgiven in both these situations and there is no need to keep Qadha for the missed Salaah. However, it is obligatory to keep the Qadha of the missed Siyam in both these situations.
C34.3 During the times of Salaah, a woman should perform Wudhu and pray the Durood or some other prayer for the duration of the Salaah, so that she will remain in habit. For a woman on her period or during Nifas to pray the Qur'an whether by looking at it or off by heart, or to touch it whether the whole of it or part of it or a verse of it by the tips of the fingers or any other part of the body is all Haram [Hindiya etc.].
C34.4 To touch a piece of paper with a verse of the Qur'an written on it is also Haram.
C34.5 If the Qur'an is wrapped in a cloth (Juzdan) then to hold the Juzdan is allowed [Hindiya].
C34.6 The rules are the same in this situation for touching the Qur'an or other religious books as it is for when bathing is obligatory for someone, this has been covered in the Ghusl section.
C34.7 If the tutor has Haiz or Nifas then she should teach each verse whilst breaking it into parts (breathing in between the words), there is no problem in spelling.
C34.8 It is Makrooh to pray Dua-e-Kunoot whilst in Haiz or Nifas.
C34.9 Except for the Qur'an all other recitations, submissions, Durood etc. is allowed without any problems, in fact it is better. It is also better to perform Wudhu or mouthwash, but it is still okay without doing this. There is no harm in touching anything except for the Qur'an.
C34.10 Sexual Intercourse is Haram in this situation, however, to sleep, sit, eat, kiss is all allowed.

ISTIHAZA

C35.0 Recognition and rules of Istihaza
C35.1 The blood that comes out of a woman's vagina but is not due to menstruation or childbirth (Haiz or Nifas) is known as Istihaza.
C35.2 Whilst a woman's is in Istihaza, the Salaah is not forgiven, the fasting is not forgiven nor is it Haram to have sexual intercourse.
C35.3 The Istihaza is so much that there is no time for Wudhu and Fardh Salaah, then from until the beginning of the Salaah time to the Salaah finishing this will be recognised as 'Ma'zoor'. Within one Salaah time by making one Wudhu pray as many Salaah as they wish, from the blood coming the Wudhu will not break.
C35.4 If a woman by the use of a cloth can hold the blood back until so long that she can perform Wudhu and Salaah then she is not a Ma'zoor.

C36.0 MA'ZOOR

C36.1 All people who have a certain illness within a time, whereby with Wudhu they cannot pray full Salaah and the time passes but this illness does not stop, is known as a Ma'zoor. Meaning in all the time the illness did not stop so that they could perform Wudhu and pray Fardh Salaah.
C36.2 The rule of a Ma'zoor is that they perform Wudhu and can pray any Salaah within a Salaah time period and their Wudhu would not break due to that illness. For example:
a) illnesses like continuous drops of urine,
b) continuous releasing of wind from the back passage,
c) releasing water from a hurting eye,
d) releasing of puss from a wound or mole or water coming out of the ear or navel etc.
These are all illnesses that break the Wudhu, and if a full Salaah time goes pass and after every effort the illness does not stop, therefore you cannot become clean from it and therefore cannot pray Salaah, then this has proven that you have an illness that cannot be stopped and therefore whilst this illness continues you are a Ma'zoor.
C36.3 For example, a time of Salaah has passed for a woman whereby Istihaza did not give her enough time that she could become clean from it and perform Wudhu and pray Fardh Salaah. In the second Salaah time, she gains enough time to perform Wudhu but blood drops once or twice then she is still a Ma'zoor, because once an illness has been proven that it can't be stopped during one Salaah period but then does not continue to be causing a problem but sometimes in a second period it returns then the person will remain a Ma'zoor as it is not necessary for the illness (once proven) to continue all the time and break Wudhu.
C36.4 For an illness to be proven it is necessary that one whole period passed without being free from the illness that causes Wudhu to break, then in the second period all the time is not necessary but once is sufficient for them to remain a Ma'zoor.
C36.5 As soon as the time for Fardh Salaah finishes the Wudhu of a Ma'zoor will also break. If Wudhu was performed for the Salaah of 'Asr, then it would break as soon as the sun sets. Also if Wudhu was performed after sunrise, then a Ma'zoor's Wudhu would remain until the end of Dhuhr time as there are no Fardh Salaah in between this time.
C36.6 A Wudhu for a Ma'zoor will not break with the illness only, this means it will still break with another fault that normally would break Wudhu. For example, if a person's illness is that they continue dropping urine, then if they released wind then their Wudhu would break or if their illness that they cannot stop releasing wind then their Wudhu would break if they had urine drops.
C36.7 If there is any way that the illness would be reduced or would stop then this is obligatory. For example, if blood flows when standing up to pray Salaah but it stops when you sit down and pray, then it is obligatory to pray whilst seated.
C36.8 If the Ma'zoor has an illness whereby his clothing will become impure and is more than a Dirham in size and he has enough time that he can wash the impure part and then pray Salaah, then it is obligatory for him to do this, and if he knows that whilst praying Salaah it will become impure by the same amount then it is not necessary for him to wash it, continue praying with these clothes even if the place where Salaah is being prayed also gets impure.
If the impurity on the clothing is the same size as a Dirham and there is enough time for him to clean this and is also aware that the clothing will not get the same amount of impurity again whilst praying Salaah, then it is necessary (Wajib) for him to clean this. If the impurity is less than a Dirham and there is time, then it is Sunnah to clean it and if there is no time left, then in any situation it is forgiven.
C36.9 If there is any discharge from a wound but does not flow then nor will it do not break the Wudhu, nor will you be a Ma'zoor due to it and nor is it impure.

C37.0 METHOD OF CLEANING IMPURE ITEMS

C37.1 There are two types of impure items. Firstly there is the item that is in itself impure which is known as impurity, such as:
a) alcohol, b) faeces, c) urine, d) dung etc. these items until they keep to it's original form, they cannot be made clean.
C37.2 Alcohol will remain impure as long as it stays as alcohol, and if it is made into vinegar then it becomes clean. Cow dung will remain impure until it is burnt and turned into ashes, then it is clean [Muniya, etc.].
C37.3 Secondly there is the item which is itself not impure, but due to having impurity stuck on it, it becomes impure, such as; a piece of clothing has had alcohol on it, the clothing is now impure.
C37.4 To clean these items there are various methods. Many will become clean after;
a) Washing them, b) some will become clean after drying, c) some after shaking, d) some after burning, e) some after tanning and some after cutting.
C37.5 You can clean impurity from items with clean water and any other clean liquid which would be able to clean it. Such as;
a) Vinegar, b) rose water, c) tea water, c) banana water etc.
C37.6 Used water from Wudhu and Ghusl (ablution and bathing) can be used to clean impurities (this water is clean for cleaning but cannot be re-used to perform ablution or bathing).

C38.0 Method of cleaning solid impurities
C38.1 If impurity can be cleaned with saliva, then this method can be used. Such as, if a breast fed child vomited onto the breast then drank milk again and the impurity was cleaned off, then the breast will be clean [Qazi Khan etc.].
C38.2 Impurity cannot be cleaned with soup, milk, oil, because these liquids will not make the impurity go away.
C38.3 If the impurity is thick, such as faeces, dung, blood etc. then there is no rule on how many times it should be washed, if it takes just once to wash it clean then this is sufficient, however, if it takes four or five times to clean then this must be done. If the impurity is cleaned off the first time it is Mustahhab to clean it three times.

C39.0 The order on the colour or smell remaining after cleaning
C39.1 If the impurity is cleaned off but there is still some smell, colour or a sign left, then it is important to clean this also. However, if it is very difficult to get rid of it's existence, then washing it three times will be sufficient, it is not necessary to wash it with soap, acid or hot water [Alamgiri, Maniya etc.].
C39.2 If you put on an impure colour or impure henna on you body or clothes, then it is necessary to wash as many times as it takes for clean water to run off from it, it is not necessary for the colour to disappear [Alamgiri, Maniya etc.].

C40.0 Method of cleaning liquid impurities
C40.1 If you prepared saffron or some other die to colour your clothes and a child urinated in it or some other impurity dropped in it, then if you coloured the clothing with this, then wash it three times and it will become clean.

C40.2 If impure oil got on your clothes or body, then wash it three times and it will become clean. If there is still the stickiness of the oil remaining, then it is not necessary to use soap or hot water to make it clean. However, if fat from a dead animal got on your clothes or body then until the stickiness goes the body or clothing will not become clean [Muniya, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C40.3 If blood got on a knife or inside an animal's head and then this knife or animal's head was put into a fire and the blood was burnt, then both the knife and the head will become clean [Maniya, Bazazia].

C41.0 Squeezing and it's limit
C41.1 If the impurity is a liquid, then to wash it three times and also adequately squeeze the clothing three times will clean the item. To squeeze it adequately means that every person squeezes the item to their own strength and ability, so that if the item was squeezed again more drops would not fall. If you think of the clothing and do not squeeze it adequately, then the item will not become clean [Alamgiri, Qazi khan].
C41.2 If the person who has washed the clothing squeezed it adequately, then another person came who had more strength than the first person and squeezes the clothing and more drops fall, then the item is still considered clean because the first person washed it not the second person as the second person's strength is not taken into account, however, if the second person washed it and only squeezed it with the same strength as the first person, then the item is not clean.
C41.3 After squeezing the first two times it is better to also clean the hands and after squeezing the third time, both the clothing and hands are clean. If the clothing is still wet that even half a drop of water falls, then both the clothing and hands are unclean.
C41.4 If clothing was washed the first and second time and the hands were not washed after this and the water drops from the hands fall on a clean part of the clothing, then the clean part will become impure. If after this, the clothing is wet after washing it the first time, then it must be washed twice, and if it gets wet after washing it twice with drops of water from the hand, then it must be washed once more and squeezed and if a clean part of clothing gets wet after the first wash and squeeze then it must be washed and squeezed twice more and if it gets wet after squeezing it twice then washing it once more and squeezing it will get the clothing clean.
C41.5 Clothing is washed three times and is squeezed adequately three times and now it does not have any drops of water falling from it, then it is hung and some more water drops, this water is clean.
C41.6 If the clothing was not squeezed adequately and water dropped, then the water is not clean.
C41.7 The order for a milk drinking boy or girl is the same and that is if their urine got on clothing or the body then to wash it three times is necessary and only then will the clothing or body become clean [Alamgiri etc.].

C42.0 Method of cleaning items that cannot be squeezed
C42.1 The items that cannot be squeezed such as a leather table cloth, shoes, pans etc. should be washed and left to drip, and after all the water has dripped repeat the process again and then repeat it again for the third time and it will become clean. The same rule applies to clothing that is very fragile and would tear if squeezed.

C43.0 Method of cleaning steel, copper and glassware products
C43.1 If there are items where impurities do not dissolve in them, such as;
a) glassware,
b) dishes made from clay or pans or steel or copper etc.
c) Or items of metal etc. can be washed three times and they will become clean, it is not necessary to leave them between washes to drip dry.
C43.2 It is better to scour impure dishes with soil.
C43.3 If there is cooked leather and it gets an impurity on it, then if you can squeeze it, do so and if this is not possible then washing and leaving to drip dry between washes for three washes will get it clean [Alamgiri, Qazi khan].
C43.4 Items of metal such as a knife, dagger, sword etc. which do not have a colour on them nor any design on the metal can be wiped clean if an impurity gets on them, and in this situation if there is no difference to the impurity meaning either solid or liquid, such as silver, gold, or a small pot or false or proper metal, then all these items can be wiped clean, if however, there is a design on them or has rust on them then they must be washed, they will not become clean by wiping them.

C44.0 Method of cleaning a mirror etc.
C44.1 Items such as a mirror, all items of glass, pots of glass, glazed pots, polished wood so as long as they are not porous can be cleaned by wiping them down properly so that no remains of impurities exist on them.
C44.2 If the ground becomes dry and there was impurity and that has now disappeared then it is clean but you cannot perform Tayammum with it, however, you can pray Salaah on it [Alamgiri etc.].
C44.3 If an items has been cleaned by drying or shaking and then gets wet again (with water) it will not become unclean again [Bazaziya].

C45.0 Method of cleaning hide
C45.1 Except for pigskin all other types of hide become clean by making them up, whether it is cleaned with salty water or some other medicine or is just dried in the sun or wing or dust and all it's dripping and smell has gone, then in both situations the skin will become clean. You can pray Salaah on this [Hidaya, Shareh Waqaya, Alamgiri etc].
C45.2 Except for the pig if any other animal whether Haram or Halal is slaughtered by saying 'Bismilla..' then it's meat and skin is clean. You can pray Salaah while having the meat on your possession and you can pray Salaah on the skin. However, a Haram animal after being slaughtered will not become Halal but will stay Haram, there is a difference between the meat being clean and the meat being Halal. Look, soil is clean and can be used to clean something, but unless it is vital to save your life it is Haram to eat [Maniya, Hadiya etc.].
C45.3 Lead and tin become clean when melted [Alamgiri].

C46.0 Method of cleaning honey
C46.1 If honey becomes impure then the method of cleaning it is to add the same amount of water as honey and then to heat it until all the water burns out, perform this method three times and the honey will become clean.

C47.0 Method of cleaning oil and butter
C47.1 The method of cleaning oil if it becomes impure is to perform the same process as for the honey. There is also another method and that is to add the same amount of water as the oil and stir it well, then take out the oil and throw away the water, repeat this three times and the oil will become clean [Muniya, Alamgiri].
C47.2 If butter or lard become impure then use one of the methods as above and the butter or lard will become clean.
C47.3 If a piece of cloth is made up of two ply and if one ply gets an impurity on it, then if they are sown together, Salaah is not allowed on the other ply and if they are not sown together, then Salaah is allowed.
C47.4 If a plank of wood gets an impurity on one side of it and is so large that it can be joined in size, then you can turn it over and pray on the other side of it [Muniya].
C47.5 The ground that has been plastered with dung, whether the dung has dried Salaah cannot be prayed on it, however, if it has dried and a large cloth is put on it then you can pray Salaah on the cloth.

C48.0 How are trees or walls, Herb roots, bricks cleaned?
C48.1 All trees, grass and bricks made from ground roots are clean when they dry up. If the bricks are not made from ground roots then it is necessary to wash it otherwise it will not be clean. Also if a tree or grass is cut before it becomes dry then it is also necessary to wash it for cleanliness [Alamgiri].

C49.0 ISTINJA - WASHING OR CLEANING THE PRIVATE PARTS

C49.1 Respects of Istinja

C49.2 When performing excretion or urination or when washing, do not face towards Qibla nor have the Qibla behind you. Whether you are in the home or in a field, and if you do have your face or rear pointing towards the Qibla then change direction as soon as you remember as this may then be forgiven [Fatahul Qadir].
C49.3 To have a child facing Qibla is Makrooh and the person making the child urinate is responsible for this and he will be given the sins [Alamgiri]. When performing excretion or urination do not have your face or rear pointing towards the sun or moon. In the same text it is not allowed to urinate against the wind or in any place where drops of urine would spray on you.
C49.4 To go for urination or excretion without covering your head is not allowed and also to take with you anything that has 'Allah' or his beloved 'Prophet's name' on it or any Wali's name on it, is also not allowed [Alamgiri etc.].
C50.0 The method of Istinja and the prayer before it
C50.1 When you go to perform urination or excretion then it is Mustahhab (desirable) to pray this Dua outside the toilet:
a) "Bismillahi Allahumma inni A'udhubika Minal Khubuthi Wal Khabaa'ith"
b) Then first put your left foot inside the toilet room and when you get near the toilet then remove the clothing from the body but do not remove more than necessary.
c) Then separate the feet and sit down and give weight to your left foot and sit quietly with your head lowered and relieve yourself.
d) When you have relieved yourself, then men should shake their penis slowly from left to right, back and fourth so that all the drops of urine come out.
e) Then you should clean it with a dhela (handful of soil or sand etc.) and then before standing fully upright pull up your clothing.
f) Then step out of the toilet first with your right foot and when you have come outside the toilet, pray this Dua:
"Ghufranaka Al-Hamdu Lillahil Ladhi Adhhaba 'Anni Mayoo Dheenee Wa Amsaka 'Allaya Ma Yanfauni"

C51.0 Dua for entering the washroom
a) Then go into the washroom after praying this Dua;
"Bismilla'hil 'Adheem Wa Bihamdihi Wal Hamdu Lillahi 'Alaa Deenil Islami Allahumaj 'Alni Minatawwa Beena Waj 'Alni Minal Mutatah Hireenaladhina La Khawfun 'Alaihim Walahum Yahzanoon"
b) Firstly wash your hands three times, then pour the water with your right hand and wash with your left hand, and keep the can of water upright so that the water does not splash.
c) Then first of all wash the front parts and then wash the rear part (anus). When washing the rear put pressure on with your breath and put a Dhela and wash the part thoroughly so that after washing there is no smell remaining on your hand.
d) Then with a clean cloth dry the area and if you do not have a cloth then continue wiping the are until no water is left dripping, and if you are doubtful then shake the water off with a hand towel.
e) Then after leaving the washroom pray this Dua;
"Alhamdulilla Hilladhee Ja 'alal Ma-a Tahooraw Wal Islama Nooraw WaQa-idaw Wadaleelan ilallahi Ta'ala Wailaa Jannaatin Na'eem Allahumma Hassin Farjee Wa Tahhir Qalbee Wa Mahiss Dhunubee"
C51.1 When impurity comes out of the front or the rear, it is Sunnah to clean with a Dhela. If it is washed only with water it is still allowed, but it is Mustahhab to first clean it with a Dhela then wash it with water. Cleaning with a Dhela is allowed when the impurity is not spread more than a Dirham in size, and if it is spread more than a Dirham then it is compulsory to wash it with water, however, it is still Sunnah to use a Dhela first.

C52.0 Difference in winter and Summer for using a Dhela
C52.1 After excretion, for a male, the Mustahhab method of using a Dhela in Summer is to use the first Dhela starting from the front and then taking it to the rear. The second one starting at the rear then taking it to the front and finally the third Dhela from the front taking it to the rear.
C52.2 In the winter start the first Dhela from the rear and then take it to the front, second vice-versa and third the same as the first.
C52.3 Women in every season should use the first Dhela from front to rear, second from rear to front and the third from front to rear again [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri].
C52.4 If you cannot gain complete cleanliness by using three Dhelas then use five, seven, nine, meaning in odd numbers.
C52.5 After performing urination, if you feel that another drop of urine will come, then it is Wajib for you to perform 'Istibrao' meaning after urination to perform some act that would force the urine left inside, to come out.
Istibrao is done by swaying, or to hit your feet hard on the floor, or to come down from a high place to a low place or climb up from a low to a high place, or it can be done by crossing your legs over and putting on pressure, or it can be done by clearing your throat or lying on your left side. Istibrao should be performed until you are confident that no more drops will come out. The order of Istibrao is really for males, women should wait a little while after urination then perform cleanliness.
C52.6 Stones, rocks, torn piece of cloth are the items that should be used for a Dhela, you can use these without any problem to clean.
C52.7 It is not allowed to use (writing) paper to perform Istinja whether it has something written on it or not.
C52.8 If a man's hand is disabled then his wife should perform Istinja for him, and if a woman's hand is disabled then her husband should perform Istinja for her. If you are not married and your hand is disabled then you should not use another relation such as son, daughter, brother, sister, in fact in this situation Istinja can be missed.

C53.0 Leftover water from Wudhu
C53.1 You should not use the leftover water from Wudhu for the purpose of washing.

C54.0 Leftover water from washing
C54.1 The leftover water from washing should not be thrown away, but should be used for something else as it is clean and also can be used to perform Wudhu.

C55.0 SECOND QUALIFICATION ON SALAAH -

C55.1 SATRE-AURAT - COVERING OF THE BODY

C55.2 It is compulsory to cover the body, meaning how much of the body in Salaah should be covered at least.
C55.3 For males, from below the naval to below the knees is compulsory, that it is covered, it is not compulsory to cover the naval, but the knees must be covered.
C55.4 For women who are not slaves nor have any restriction of Shariah on them, it is compulsory for them to cover all their body except the face, hands upto the wrists and feet upto the ankles. It is also compulsory for women to cover the hair hanging from their heads, their necks and their collars (throats).
C55.5 If a woman has worn a very thin veil over her head that the hair's shininess can be seen then the Salaah will not count.
C55.6 For a female servant/slave the whole of the stomach, back, both sides and from the navel to the knees is all aurat (parts that need covering).
C55.7 In all the parts that are compulsory to cover if one part was uncovered and was less than a quarter, then the Salaah will count. If it is a quarter in size and is recovered immediately, then the Salaah will count. If the part was uncovered for one 'Rukun' meaning the time you could say Subhanallah three times or was uncovered deliberately and whether it was covered again immediately, the Salaah will not count.

C56.0 Parts of Aurat in a Male
C56.1 There are nine parts of the body which are aurat for a male.
1. The penis
2. Both testicles
3. Posterior
4. The right hip
5. The left hip
6. The right thigh (upto and including the knee)
7. The left thigh (upto and including the knee)
8. From below the naval upto the male organ and upto both sides of the body inclusive.
9. The area between the testicles upto the posterior is a single aurat.

C56.2 The aurats that have been counted above are all one part each, meaning if less than a quarter of each part became uncovered, the Salaah would count.
C56.3 If some parts of the aurats became uncovered but were all less than a quarter, however, when added together the size would be more than a quarter of the smallest part that has been uncovered, then the Salaah will not count. For example, if a ninth of a thigh was uncovered, a ninth of hip and a ninth of a penis was uncovered then the size added together is more than a quarter of the penis, the Salaah will not count [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C56.4 At the start of the Salaah if one quarter of a part is left uncovered and you say Allahu Akbar, the Salaah will not start [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C57.0 Aurat parts for a woman

C57.1 For women who are not slaves, except for the five parts mentioned above (face, both hands upto the wrists and both feet upto the ankles) all the body is aurat. This is split into thirty parts of the body. The same rule applies in Salaah (as mentioned above) if a quarter became uncovered for each part.
1. The head, meaning from the top of the head upto the start of the neck.
2. The hair that hangs down
3. The right ear
4. The left ear
5. The neck (and throat)
6. The right shoulder
7. The left shoulder
8. The top right arm including the elbow
9. The top left arm including the elbow
10. The bottom right arm (below the elbow upto and including the wrist)
11. The bottom left arm (below the elbow upto and including the wrist)
12. The chest, below the neck/throat to the breasts
13. Back of the right hand
14. Back of the left hand
15. The right breast
16. The left breast
17. The stomach, meaning from below the breasts upto and including the navel
18. The upper back, meaning the other side of the chest
19. Both armpits upto the lower back
20. The right hip
21. The left hip
22. The vagina
23. The posterior
24. The right thigh upto and including the knees, the knee is not a separate part but is included
25. The left thigh upto and including the knees, the knee is not a separate part but is included
26. Below the naval upto the start of the pubic hair and the lower back, is all one aurat.
27. The right shin, from below the knee upto and including the ankle
28. The left shin, from below the knee upto and including the ankle.
29. The right base of the foot
30. The left base of the foot

C57.2 Many Ulema have not included the back of the hands and the base of the feet as Aurat.
C57.3 Although the woman's face is not an Aurat, it is still forbidden to expose it to non-permissible males (those a woman is not restricted to marry). Also it is forbidden for non-permissible males to look at their face.
C57.4 If a male does not have clothing that is allowed, i.e. he only has silk to cover his body, then it is obligatory for him to cover his body with the silk cloth and can pray Salaah with it on, however, if a male has other material available then it is Haram for a male to wear silk, and if a Salaah is prayed with silk on, then it will become Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
C57.5 If a naked person can obtain access to a table or floor cloth, then they must cover themselves with this and pray Salaah, and also if they can use leaves or straw to cover themselves, then they must do this [Alamgiri].
C57.6 If someone has no clothes or material, then they should pray Salaah seated and perform Ruku and prostration (Sajda) by actions [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C57.7 If another person has material or clothing and the naked person feels sure that the person will lend it to them, then it is necessary to ask for the material [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C57.8 If you only have impure clothes and there is no way of cleaning them, then pray with the impure clothes, do not pray naked [Hidaya].
C57.9 If there isn't enough clothing to cover the whole of the body but you can only cover some parts, then it is necessary that you do this and cover the private parts (vagina and posterior) first. And if there is only enough to cover one private part, then cover one of the two.
C57.10 If by praying Salaah whilst standing, one quarter of an aurat becomes uncovered, then pray Salaah whilst seated [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C58.0 THIRD QUALIFICATION OF SALAAH -
TIME

C58.1 Time of Fajr
C58.2 From the break of dawn upto the first ray of sunrise. The break of dawn (Subah Sadiq) is a light which is seen before sunrise from the east and generally gets more lighter and eventually is spread completely across and then it becomes daylight. As soon as this light of the break of dawn is seen, the time of sehri for fasting finishes and the time of Fajr Salaah begins. Before this light a seam of whiteness is seen in the middle of the sky from east to west, and underneath it the whole is area is black. The break of dawn comes from underneath this and spread across to the north and south and gets lighter. The whiteness disappears when the light of dawn starts spreading. The long whiteness is known as Subah Kazab and the time of Fajr does not begin with this [Qazi Khan, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C58.2 (The time of Subah Sadiq is dependent upon the town and country you are in. It is advisable to get the time from the observatory).
C58.3 For the time of Fajr Salaah wait until the break of dawn starts spreading and it's light can be seen, and the finishing of Sehri and the end of 'Isha Salaah time is as soon as the break of dawn starts, meaning pray the Fajr Salaah at least after the light of the break of dawn can be seen and end the Sehri and the time of 'Isha once the break of dawn occurs [Alamgiri].

C59.0 Time of Dhuhr
C59.1 From Zawal, meaning midday until everything has except for it's original shadow a double shadow. For example, there was a shadow in the afternoon of an item the size of four fingers and the item is actually eight fingers in size, the time of Dhuhr will not finish until the size of the shadow gets to twenty fingers in length.
C59.2 The original shadow is the shadow which occurs exactly at midday. This is when the sun reaches exactly middle of the sky and the distance of east and west is exactly the same. When the sun moves from this position slightly to the east, the time of Dhuhr begins.
C59.3 The recognition of the sun moving is by digging a stick upright into the ground, and then the shadow continues to reduce until it cannot reduce anymore, this is exactly the time of midday and is known as the original shadow, when the shadow starts growing again the time of Dhuhr has begun because the sun has moved.
C59.4 The time of Jum'a is the same as the time of Dhuhr.

C60.0 Time of 'Asr
C60.1 As soon as the time of Dhuhr finishes, the time for 'Asr begins. Depending upon the city and country, the length of 'Asr varies.
C60.2 The length of the time of 'Asr is also dependent on the time of the season, i.e. autumn, summer etc.

C61.0 Time of Maghrib
C61.1 As soon as the sun sets until the dusk (Shafaq) disappears. Dusk is the twilight that is seen after the redness of the sun has gone and is spread like the whiteness of dawn from east then from north to south [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Khanya].
C61.2 In the UK the length of Maghrib is usually approximately a minimum of two hours and a maximum of two hours and fifteen minutes. The length of the time of Maghrib is exactly the same as the time length of Fajr for that day.

C62.0 Time of 'Isha
C62.1 As soon as the twilight of dusk disappears the time of 'Isha begins until the break of dawn. As well as the twilight of dusk, there is also a twilight seen after this from north to south but the time of 'Isha has begun and the time of Maghrib has ended.

C63.0 Time of Witr
C63.1 The time of Witr is the same as the time of 'Isha. However, Witr cannot be prayed before the Fardh Salaah of 'Isha, as the sequencing is obligatory. If the Salaah of Witr is prayed purposely before the Fardh Salaah of 'Isha, then the Witr will not count and will have to be prayed again after the Fardh Salaah of 'Isha. However, if the Witr Salaah is prayed before 'Isha by mistake or you have realised that you prayed the 'Isha Salaah without Wudhu and prayed the Witr Salaah with Wudhu, then it is accepted [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C63.2 In those countries where the time of 'Isha does not come, then the Qadha of 'Isha and Witr should be prayed [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C64.0 MUSTAHHAB TIMES OF SALAAH

C64.1 In Fajr, delaying is Mustahhab (Preferred). Meaning when there is good light then start the Salaah. Also Mustahhab time is that you can pray approx. forty to sixty verses of the Qur'an in a clear and distinct manner (tarteel), and after performing Salaam there is enough time left that if there was a fault you could repeat your Wudhu and pray the Salaah again with forty or sixty verses in a clear and concise manner. To delay so much that there is doubt that the sun will rise is Makrooh (disliked) [Qazi Khan etc.].
C64.2 For women it is always Mustahhab to pray Fajr at the beginning time and the rest of the Salaah's prayed after the Jamaat of the males has completed.
C64.3 In winter, early Dhuhr is Mustahhab. In the warm weather it is Mustahhab to pray the Salaah late, whether it is prayed alone or with Jamaat. However, in the warm weather, if the Jamaat of Dhuhr is early, you are not allowed to miss it for the Mustahhab time. The season of autumn is in the same rule as winter, and the season of spring is in the same rule as summer [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Alamgiri].
C64.3 The Mustahhab time of Jum'a is the same as the Mustahhab time of Dhuhr [Hijr].
C64.4 It is Mustahhab to delay the 'Asr Salaah, but not too much that the rays of the sun go deep red and that without any difficulty you could look directly at the sun, the sun shining is not a form of deep redness [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, etc.].
C64.5 It is better that you pray Dhuhr in the first half of it's time and 'Asr in the second half of it's time [Guniya].
C64.6 From study it is apparent that the sun goes deep red twenty minutes before sunset and also it stays red twenty minutes after sun rise, which is the out of Salaah time [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e- Shariah].
C64.7 The clarification of delay is that the time allocated for a particular Salaah is split into two and then the Salaah is prayed in the second half.
C64.8 Except for the days when there is cloud, it is always Mustahhab to start Maghrib quickly, and if the time is delayed for more than the length of two rakats then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. Also, if without cause i.e. travelling, illness etc. if the time is delayed so that the stars can be seen clearly, then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Fatawa-e-Razvia].
C64.9 It is Mustahhab for 'Isha Salaah to be delayed for the first third part of the time. It is allowed to be prayed after the first half of the time, meaning you prayed the Fardh rakats just before the first half ended, and if delayed that the night had dropped (meaning after the first half) then this it is Makrooh as it would mean missing Jamaat (congregation) [Hijr, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Khaniya].
C64.10 It is Makrooh to sleep before praying the 'Isha Salaah.
C64.11 After the 'Isha prayer it is Makrooh to talk about worldly things, to tell or listen to stories or fables. It is not Makrooh to talk about important issues, to pray the Qur'an, or recite Allah's name, or talk about religious regulations, stories of pious people and to talk with guests. Also, from the break of dawn upto sunrise all types of conversation except to recite the name of Allah is Makrooh [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C64.12 If a person is confident in waking up then they should pray the Witr Salaah in the last part of the night just before sleeping and then if they wake up in the last part of the night they should pray Tahajjud, they cannot pray Witr again [Qazi Khan].
C64.13 During dull and cloudy days it is Mustahhab to pray the 'Asr and 'Isha Salaah early and Mustahhab to delay the other Salaah's.

C65.0 MAKROOH TIMES

C65.1 Whilst the sun is rising or setting and at exactly midday, at these three times no Salaah is allowed. No Fardh, no Wajib, no Nafl, no Ada (current), no Qadha (expired), no Sajda-e-Tilawat, No Sajda-e- Sahoo. However, if the 'Asr Salaah for that day is still left to pray then you must pray whether the sun is setting, but to delay it for so long is Haram.
C65.2 Sun rising means from the edge of the sun has come out until all the sun has risen and the eye sparkles when directly looked at, and this is a total time of twenty minutes.
C65.3 Midday (Nisfun Nihar) means starting from exact mid sun until the sun drops.
C65.4 The way of finding the exact time of Nisfun Nihar (midday) is to find out what day today the break of dawn started and what time the sun set. Split this into two halves and as soon as the first half ends this is the time of midday until the sun starts dropping from this position. For example, say today the 20th March the sun sets at 6pm and also risen at 6am, then the afternoon started at 12pm, and in the morning at 4.30am the dawn broke. Therefore a total of thirteen and a half hours have occurred between the break of dawn until sun set and so half of it would be six and three quarter hours. The time therefore of Nisfun Nihar would be quarter past eleven and the sun would drop at 12pm, and hence a total of three-quarters of one hour would be the total time when any Salaah would not be allowed.
C65.5 Notice: The above calculation is a mere example and therefore the time would differ according to the city and country and the season. Different destinations and different times show that the approximate time would be twenty minutes and in all places the above method of calculation should be used.
C65.6 If a funeral (Janaza) is brought at the three prohibited times there is no harm in praying the Salaah. It is not allowed to be prayed when all the funeral is ready beforehand and the time is delayed until the prohibited times start [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C65.7 During these three prohibited times it is better if you do not pray the Qur'an, it is better to recite the name of Allah or pray the Durood continuously [Alamgiri].

C66.0 Twelve times where Nafl Salaah is prohibited

C66.1 It is prohibited to pray Nafl (voluntary) Salaah during twelve times;
1. From the break of dawn (Subah Sadiq) until the sun has risen fully, no Nafl Salaah is allowed, except for the two Sunnahs of Fajr.
2. From when the call to establish rows for congregation (Iqamat for Jamaat) until the Fardh Salaah finishes, to pray a Nafl or Sunnah is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if the Jamaat of Fajr Salaah has stood up and you know that if you pray the Sunnahs of Fajr you will still be able to join the Jamaat, whether it be in the last sitting position (Qaida) it is necessary that you pray the Sunnahs separately from the rows of Jamaat and then join the Jamaat. If you know that if you start the Sunnahs you will not be able to join the Jamaat but you still start the Sunnahs then this is forbidden and a sin. Except for the Fajr Salaah it is not allowed to start a Sunnah even if you know you can join the Jamaat late when the Iqamat has been called for Jamaat.
3. After praying the 'Asr Salaah until the sun goes red, no Nafl Salaah is allowed.
4. As soon as the sun has set, until the Fardh Salaah of Maghrib has been prayed, no Nafl is allowed [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
5. From the time in Juma the Imam stands up from his place to perform Khutba until the Fardh Salaah of Juma has been prayed, no Nafl is allowed.
6. At the start of a Khutba (sermon), whether it is the first or the second for Juma, Eids, Kusoof, Istisqa, Hajj or Nikah, all Salaah is not allowed even Qadha Salaah. However, for Sahib-e-Tarteeb (those who have less than five Salaah of Qadha due) at the start of the Juma Khutba, Qadha Salaah is allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. If the Sunnahs of Juma have been started and the Imam stands up for the Khutba, then complete all four rakats of the Sunnah.
7. All Nafl Salaah is Makrooh before the Eid Salaah, whether you pray them at home, Mosque or Eid hall [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
8. It is Makrooh to pray Nafl Salaah after the Eid Salaah if they are prayed at the Eid hall or Mosque, if they are prayed back at home then they are not Makrooh [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
9. At Arafat, where the Dhuhr and 'Asr is prayed together, to pray a Nafl or Sunnah in between them or after them is Makrooh.
10. In Muzdalifa, where the Maghrib and 'Isha is prayed joined together, it is Makrooh to pray any Sunnah or Nafl Salaah in between the two Salaah, it is not Makrooh to pray Nafl after the 'Isha Jamaat [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
11. If the time of Fardh is very short, then all Nafl and Sunnahs including those of Fajr and Dhuhr are Makrooh.
12. Whatever aspect that makes the heart distract and you can relieve yourself from that aspect then all Salaah are Makrooh until you relieve yourself, for example, urination or excretion or to release wind, then these must be performed otherwise the Salaah will be Makrooh. However, if the time is going to finish, then pray the Salaah and repeat it afterwards. Also if food is presented in front of you and you have the desire to eat, or any other aspect that you may have a desire for without which you will not be able to gain satisfaction, then it is necessary to fulfil this desire before praying Salaah otherwise the Salaah will be Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
C66.2 The whole of the time of Fajr and Dhuhr is okay from the start to the end, meaning these Salaah can be prayed at any point within the time and is not Makrooh [Bararaiq, Bahar-e-Shariah].

..
C67.0 ADHAN

C68.1 The reward of Adhan
C68.2 It is stated in the Hadiths that there is a lot of reward for Adhan. In one Hadith it is stated that the Prophet has said "If people knew how much reward there is for calling the Adhan, then there would be fighting of swords between them [Riwa'al Hamd].
C68.3 Adhan is a rule in Islam, meaning if within a city, town or village people stopped calling the Adhan, then the king within the Islamic country can force the people to call the Adhan and if they do not co-operate, then he can order to have them executed [Qazi].
C69.0 Method of Adhan, it's contents and it's place

C69.1 Position yourself outside the Mosque (Jamaat Khana),
a) at a high place,
b) facing the Qibla and place the index finger in each ear or cover the ears with the palm of the hand
c) and say 'Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar', Both of these statements make one submission.
d) Then pause slightly and repeat again 'Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar' again both of these statements make one submission.
e) Then state twice 'Ashhadu Alla ilaha illallah', then state twice 'Ashhadu Anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah'.
f) Then turn the head to the right and state twice 'Hayya 'Alas Salaah', then turn your head to the left and state twice 'Hayya 'Alal Falaah'.
g) The turn your head back towards facing the Qibla and say once 'Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar' , this again is one submission, and then finally say once 'La illaha illallah'.

C70.0 The prayer after Adhan
C70.1 After the Adhan has finished, first pray the Durood and then pray this Dua;
"Allahumma Rabba Hadhihid Da'awat'it Taammati, Wassalaatil Qaammati, Aati Sayyadi Muhammadanil Wasilata Wal Fadilata Wad Darajatar Rafi'ata, Wabath-hu Muqamam Mahmoodanil Ladhi Wa attahu Warzuqna Shafa'atahu Yawmal Qiyamati Innaka La Tukhliful Mi'ad."
C70.2 In the Fajr Adhan, after 'Hayya 'Alal Falah', also say twice 'Assalatu Khairum Minan Naum' as this is Mustahhab, and if it is not said, the Adhan will still count.

C71.0 Which Salaah does Adhan have to be called for?
C71.1 All the five Fardh Salaah and also the Juma Salaah where one goes into the Mosque to pray with Jamaat and is prayed at a designated time, then Adhan for these Salaah is Sunnah-e-Maukida, and it's order is the same as Wajib.
C71.2 If the Adhan is not called, then all the people from there are sinners [Khaniya, Hindiya, Radd-ul- Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar].

C72.0 The order of Adhan
C72.1 If someone prayed Salaah at home and did not call the Adhan then there is no problem because the Adhan at Mosque would be sufficient for them. Although it is Mustahhab to say the Adhan at home.

C73.0 When should the Adhan be called ?

C73.1 The Adhan must be called after the time for that Salaah has begun. If the Adhan is called before the time then it must be called again [Qazi Khan, Shareh Waqiya, Alamgiri].

C74.0 The time of Adhan
C74.1 The time of Adhan is the same as the time of Salaah.
C74.2 The Mustahhab time of Adhan is the same as the Mustahhab time of Salaah.
C74.3 If the Adhan was called at the start of the time and the Salaah is prayed towards the end of the time, then the Sunnah will still be fulfilled [Durr -e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C75.0 Which Salaah do not contain Adhan
C75.1 Except for the Fardh Salaah's no other Salaah have the Adhan, Not for Witr, or Janaza, or Eid, or Nazr (gift) Salaah, or Sunun (Sunnahs) Salaah, or Rawatib (traditional), or Tarawih (in Ramadan), or Istisqa (Thankful) Salaah, or Chast (mid morning), or Kusoof or Khusoof (sun or moon eclipse) or any Nafl Salaah [Alamgiri].

C76.0 Order of Adhan for women
C76.1 It is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi for women to call the Adhan or Iqamat. If a woman calls the Adhan she will be sinful and the Adhan will have to be called again.
C76.2 It is Makrooh to call the Adhan for women Salaah Ada or Qadha, whether it is prayed by Jamaat, although their Jamaat itself is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].

C77.0 Order of Adhan for children, blind people and those without Wudhu
C77.1 The Adhan called by a clever child, or a blind person or a person without Wudhu is correct and permissible [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. However, to call the Adhan without Wudhu is Makrooh [Miraqul Falah].
C77.2 In a city during the day of Juma (Friday) it is not allowed to call the Adhan for Dhuhr Salaah, whether some people are excluded from praying Juma and are praying Dhuhr because the Juma Salaah is not Fardh for them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C78.0 Who should say the Adhan?
C78.1 Adhan should be called by those who recognise the times of Salaah. Those who do not recognise the Salaah times are not worthy of gaining the reward of Adhan which is gained by the Mu'adhin [Bazazia, Alamgiri, Gunya, Qazi Khan].
C78.2 It is better if the Imam calls the Adhan [Alamgiri].

C79.0 Order of talking between the Adhan
C79.1 To talk between the Adhan is prohibited and if you (the Mu'adhin) did talk the Adhan has to be called again [Sagiri].
C79.2 To perform a melody in Adhan is Haram, meaning to sing the words like a song. Or to change the words of the Adhan such as to change the word Allah to Aallah due to melody, or to change the word Akbar to Aakbar or Akbaar is all Haram. However, it is better to call the Adhan in a sweet sharp voice [Hindiya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C79.3 If the Adhan is called quietly then it should be called again and the first Jamaat is not the Jamaat-e-Ula (main Jamaat) [Qazi Khan].
C79.4 The Adhan should be called in a minaret or outside the Mosque, do not call the Adhan in the mosque (Jamaat hall) [Khulasa, Alamgiri,Qazi Khan].

C80.0 The answer to Adhan
C80.1 When you hear the Adhan, it is an order to reply to it. Meaning whatever the Mu'adhin calls reply back with the same submission.
a) The only exceptions are 'Hayya Alas Salah' and 'Hayya Alal Falaah', where the reply is 'La Hawla Wala Quwwata illa billah' and it is better if you say both (meaning Hayya......and La Hawla....).
b) Also add this onto it 'Mashaa Allaho Kaana Wamaalam Yashaa Lam Yakun' [Radd-ul- Mohtar, Alamgiri].
c) In reply to 'Assalato Khairum Minan Naum' the following is to be said 'Sadaqta Wa Bararta Wa bil Haqqi Nataqta' [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C81.0 Stop all activities whilst the Adhan is being called
C81.1 A Junub should also reply to the Adhan. It is not Wajib for a women in her period or is still bleeding after childbirth, or a person who is listening to the Khutba, or a person praying the Salaah of Janaza, or a person engaged in sexual intercourse, or a person in the toilet to reply to the Adhan.
C81.2 Whilst the Adhan is being called, all talking, greeting and reply to the greeting should be stopped, and all other occupations should be stopped, even the recitation of the Qur'an should be stopped if the sound of Adhan is heard and it should be listened and replied. The same rule applies for Iqamat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C81.3 Those who remain busy in chitchat, their death will be bad (Muazallah) [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
C81.4 If you are walking and you hear the sound of Adhan, then stop and listen to it and reply back [Alamgiri, Bazazia].

C82.0 IQAMAT
C82.1 Iqamat is the same example as the Adhan. Meaning the rules that have been stated for Adhan also apply to Iqamat. However, there are a few differences. In Iqamat after 'Hayya Alal Falah' also say 'Qad Qamatis Salaat' twice. Also the volume whilst calling the Iqamat should be loud but not as loud as the volume for Adhan. But loud enough so that all that are present can hear.
C82.2 The words and submissions of Iqamat should be said quickly without a pause and you should not cover your ears with your hands or put your fingers into your ears when calling the Iqamat, you should not say 'Assalatu Khairum Minan Naum' in the morning Iqamat and the Iqamat should be called from inside the Mosque (Jamaat Khana).
C82.3 If the Imam called the Iqamat, then when he calls 'Qad Qamatis Salaat', he should move forward to the Imam prayer mat (Musalla) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Guniya, Alamgiri, etc.].
C82.4 In Iqamat, you should also move your head when saying 'Hayya Alas Salah and Hayya Alal Falah' to the right and left [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C82.5 If someone came during the time of Iqamat, then for them to stand and wait is Makrooh, they should sit down and wait until the Mukabbir (caller of Iqamat) says 'Hayya Alal Falah' then stand up. The same rule applies to those already present, they should not stand until 'Hayya Alal Falah' is called and the same order also applies to the Imam [Alamgiri]. Nowadays there has been a tradition made that until the Imam does not stand on his prayer mat the Iqamat is not started, this is against the Sunnah.
C82.6 It is not allowed to speak between the Iqamat as it is not allowed to speak between the Adhan. Also for the Mo'azzin or Mukabbir, if some greeted them with a Salaam, then they should not reply and it is not Wajib for them to reply after the Adhan has finished [Alamgiri].

C83.0 The Answer to Iqamat
C83.1 It is Mustahhab to reply to the Iqamat. The reply to Iqamat is similar to the reply to the Adhan. The difference is, when replying to 'Qad Qamatis Salat' say 'Aqa Mahallahu Wa Ada Maha Wa Ja'alana Min Saalihi Ahliha Ahya'aw Wa-amwata' [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C83.2 If you did not reply to the Adhan and there has not been a long duration gone by, then reply to it now [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C83.3 To reply to the Adhan of Khutba with the tongue is not allowed for the Muqtadees [Durr-e- Mukhtar].
C83.4 It is Sunnah to leave a gap between the Adhan and the Iqamat, to call the Iqamat immediately after the Adhan is Makrooh. The gap for Maghrib is equivalent to three small verses or one big verse (Ayats).
C83.5 For the rest of the Salaah's the gap should be long enough so that those who regularly attend Jamaat arrive, however, it should not be left so long that the time of Salaah lapses.

C84.0 FOURTH QUALIFICATION OF SALAAH
C84.1 FACING TOWARDS THE QIBLA

C84.2 The fourth qualifier for Salaah is facing towards the Qibla, meaning to point your face towards the Kabah.
C84.3 The Salaah is prayed for Allah and the Sajda is performed for Him not for the Kabah. If Mazallah (Allah forgive) someone performed the Sajda for the Kabah then he will be a grave sinner as it is Haram, and if someone performed the Sajda with the intention of worshipping the Kabah then he is an open infidel as it is infidelity to worship someone other than Allah [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Ifaadat Zawia].

C85.0 In what situations can Salaah be performed without facing the Qibla ?

C85.1 If a person is helpless in facing towards the Qibla, then he should pray facing whichever direction he can, and he would not have to repeat the Salaah [Muniya].
C85.2 If in illness you have not got enough strength to turn yourself towards the Kabah and there is no-one there that can assist you, then face whichever way you can and pray the Salaah and it will count.
C85.3 If someone has their or someone else's goods in their possession and knows that if he faced towards the Qibla the goods would be stolen, then he can face whichever way suits him.
C85.4 A person is travelling on a vicious animal and it is not letting him down or he can come down but without assistance he cannot mount the animal again, or is an old person and will not be able to mount the animal again and there is no-one who can assist him, then whichever direction he prays the Salaah will count.
C85.5 If a person has the power to stop an animal or vehicle he is travelling in, then he should do this and if possible make it face towards the Kabah otherwise pray whichever way it is possible. If by stopping the animal the group he is travelling with will go out of sight, then he does not have to stop, pray whilst moving [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C85.6 If you are praying Salaah on a moving boat, then when saying the Takbeer-e-Tahrima face towards the Qibla and as the boat moves, you move keeping yourself pointing towards the Qibla [Guniya].

C86.0 What if you don't know the direction of the Qibla?

C86.1 If you do not know the direction of the Qibla and there is no-one to show you, then think and wherever you think the Qibla is most likely to be pray Salaah that way, that is your Qibla [Muniya].
C86.2 If you prayed Salaah by making an assumption and then later you found out that this was not the right direction for the Qibla, your Salaah will count and there is no need to repeat the Salaah [Muniya].
C86.3 You are praying Salaah whilst making an assumption of the Qibla and whether you are in Sajda and you change your mind or have been told of your mistake then it is compulsory that you change direction immediately, and the Salaah that has been prayed so far is not wrong, and similarly if you prayed four rakats in four directions then this is allowed. If you did not change direction immediately and there was a delay equivalent to saying 'Subhanallah' three times, then the Salaah will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C86.4 A Namazee turned his chest deliberately away from the Qibla whilst praying Salaah and whether he turned it back immediately, the Salaah will break. If he turned his chest away from the Qibla by mistake and turned back without the delay time of saying 'Subhanallah' three times then the Salaah will count [Muniya, Hijr].
C86.5 If only the face turned away from the Qibla, then it is Wajib that it is turned back immediately and the Salaah will not break, however, to turn it away from the Qibla deliberately is Makrooh [Muniya].

C87.0 FIFTH QUALIFICATION OF SALAAH
NIYYAT - INTENTION

C87.1 Intention of Salaah
C87.2 Niyyat means a fixed intention of the heart, only a thought or an indication is not sufficient until there is a fixed intention.
C87.2 It is better if you say it with your tongue, for example, "I make the intention of two rakat Fardh of Fajar Salaah, for Allah Ta'ala, my face towards the Kabah, Allahu Akbar."
C87.3 It is necessary for a Muqtadee to make the intention of following the Imam.
C87.4 If the Imam did not make the intention of being the Imam, the Salaah of the Muqtadees will count but they will not gain the reward of Jamaat (congregation) prayers.
C87.5 The intention of Salaah-e-Janaza (funeral) is like this; "I make the intention of Salaah, for Allah Ta'ala, and prayer for this dead person, Allahu Akbar.

C88.0 SIXTH QUALIFICATION OF SALAAH
TAKBEER-E-TAHRIMA

C88.1 What is known as Takbeer-e-Tahrima ?
C88.2 The sixth qualification of Salaah is Takbeer-e-Tahrima, meaning when you make the Niyyat and then say Allahu Akbar, this is known as Takbeer-e-Tahrima. As soon as you say this takbeer the Salaah begins, this is compulsory and the Salaah does not start without doing this.
C88.3 If the Muqtadee said the Takbeer-e-Tahrima before the Imam, then he will be excluded from the Jamaat prayer.
C88.4 Now that you have read about all six qualifications of Salaah i.e. cleanliness, covering of the body, time, facing the Qibla, intention and Takbeer-e-Tahrima, we will discuss the method of how to pray the Salaah.

C89.0 METHOD ON HOW TO PRAY SALAAH

C89.1 The method of praying Salaah is as follows;
a) With Wudhu, face towards the Qibla and stand so that there is a gap of four fingers between your feet.
b) Take each hand to each ear and touch the lobes of the ears with the thumbs and leave the rest of the fingers in their normal state, don't join them together or spread them apart.
c) Face the palms of the hands towards the Qibla and your sight is to look at the Sajda.
d) Then make a firm intention in your heart as to which Salaah you are praying and while saying 'Allahu Akbar' lower your hands and join them below the naval.
e) The way to join the hands is to have the palm of the right hand on top of the back of the left hand wrist, keep the middle three fingers straight and circle the left wrist with the thumb and the little finger firmly grasping the hand.
f) Then pray 'Thana' meaning "Subhanakallah Humma Wa Bihamdika Wa Tabarakasmuka Wa Ta'ala Jadduka Wa Laa ila'ha Ghairuk".
g) Then pray Ta'awwuz meaning "A'udhu Billahi Minash Shaitaanir Rajeem" and then pray Tasmee'a meaning "Bismillahir rahmanir Raheem" .
h) Then pray the whole of the 'Alhamdu' Surah and say 'Aameen' quietly.
i) After this, pray any Surah or three ayats or one ayat that is equivalent to three small ayats.
j) Then whilst saying Allahu Akbar go into the Ruku. Grasp the knees with the hands and spread your fingers over the knees. Keep your back straight and your head level with your back and make sure that you are not too far up or kneeling to low down and keep your sight on your feet and pray at least three times "Subhana Rabbiyal Adheem'
k) and then pray this whilst standing up 'Sami 'Allahu Liman Hamidah' and if you are praying Salaah alone then also say 'Allahumma Rabbana Walakal Hamd'
l) and then while saying Allahu Akbar go into the Sajda. The way to do this is to first put your knees on the ground, then put your hands at the side of the place where your are going to put your head and then place your head by first placing your nose on the ground and then your forehead and then press hard on your nose. Look towards your nose and keep your elbows up so that they don't touch the ground and leave a gap between your armpits and make sure that there is a gap between your thighs and your stomach. Place all your toes so that their tips are pointing towards the Qibla and their bases are flat on the ground. Keep your hands flat and have your fingers pointing towards the Qibla. Then pray at least three times 'Subhana Rabbiyal 'A'ala'.
m) Then lift your head up while saying Allahu Akbar with first lifting your forehead then your nose then your face and then your hands.
n) Keep your right foot upright and lay your left foot flat and sit on it firmly. Place your hands on your knees with the finger tips pointing towards the Qibla and the palm of your hands flat near your knees and the base of the fingertips laid flat at the end of your kneecaps.
o) Then whilst saying 'Allahu Akbar' go back into the Sajda and this is done in the same way as the first one.
p) Then stand up by placing your hands on your knees and putting pressure on your knees and legs stand upright, don't put your hands on the ground to assist you to stand up.
q) Now pray only 'Bismillahir Rahmaanir Raheem' and then Alhamdu and another Surah and as before perform Ruku and Sajda, and when getting up from the second Sajda leave your right foot upright and lay your left foot flat and sit upright.
r) And pray 'Attahiyyaatu Lillahi Was Salawatu Wattayyibatu Assalamu 'Alaika Ayyuhannabiyu Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh Assalamu 'Alaina Wa'ala' 'Ibadillahis Saliheen. Ash-hadu Alla ilaha illallahu Wa Ash-hadu Anna Muhammadan 'Abduhu Wa Rasooluh' , This is known as Tashahhud. When you are reaching La'Ilaha make a circle in your right hand by joining the thumb with the middle finger and curl the small and it's adjacent finger with the middle finger and on the word La lift your index finger but don't move side to side and when you reach 'illallahu' straighten your hand back to normal.
s) Now if you have more than two Rakats to pray then stand back up and pray more Rakats, but for a Fardh Salaah there is no need to join another Surah after Alhamdu and then continue and when you reach your last Qaidah (sitting position) pray Tashahhud and then pray the Durood called Durood-e-Ibrahim 'Allahumma Salli 'Ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Wa'ala'Aali Sayyidina Muhammadin Kama Sallayta 'Ala Sayyidina Ibraheema Wa 'Ala Aali Sayyidina Ibraheema Innaka Hameedum Majeed - Allahumma Baarik 'Ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Wa'Ala Aali Sayyidina Muhammadin Kama Baarakta 'Ala Sayyidina Ibraheem Wa 'Ala Aali Sayyidina Ibraheema Innaka Hameedum Majeed'
t) After this pray 'Allahumagh Firli Wali Wali Dayya Wal Ustaadi Wal Jamee'il Mu'mineena Wal Mu'meenat Wal Muslimeena Wal Muslimat Al 'Ahyai Minhum Wal Amwaati Innaka Mujeebud Da'waat Birahmatika Ya Arhamarrahimeen'
u) or pray another Dua-e-Ma'soor or pray 'Allahumma Rabbana Aatina Fid Duniya Hasanataw Wafil Aakhirati Hasanataw Wa Qina Adhaaban Naar' Make sure you pray this by starting it with 'Allahumma'
v) And then turn your head towards your right shoulder and say 'Assalamu 'Alaikum Warahmatullah' and then turn your head towards your left shoulder and repeat the same words again.
w) The Salaah has now finished, so raise both your hands and pray any Dua for example 'Allahumma Rabbana Aatina Fid Duniya Hasanataw Wafil Akhirati Hasanataw Wa Qina Adhaaban Naar' then rub your hands over your face.
x) This is the method for an Imam or a male praying Salaah on their own. If however, you are a Muqtadee meaning praying in congregation (Jamaat) and behind an Imam then don't perform Qiraayat meaning don't pray 'Alhamdu' or a Surah, whether the Imam is praying loudly or quietly. Qiraayat is not allowed in any Salaah if it is being prayed behind an Imam.

C89.2 Sister's Salaah
a) If the Namazee is a female then at the Takbeer-e-Tahrima she should lift her hands only upto her shoulders and then place her left hand on her chest and the right hand on top of it.
b) When performing Ruku she should only bend a little so that her hands reach her knees and she should not put pressure on her knees and keep her fingers tightly together and not to straighten her back like males.
c) When performing Sajda she should crawl up and perform Sajda so that the arms are joined with the sides, her stomach is joined with her thighs and her thighs are crawled up with her shins and her feet are pointing outwards and are flat.
d) In Qaidah she should have both her feet pointing outwards towards the right and are flat. She should sit on her left buttock and keep her hands in the middle of her thighs.
C90.0 Order of Fardh, Wajib, Sunnah and Mustahhab
C90.1 In the above method some actions are Fardh (obligatory) and therefore without performing these the Salaah will not count. Some actions are Wajib (necessary) and therefore to deliberately miss them is a sin and it would be necessary (Wajib) to repeat the Salaah and if they are missed by mistake then a 'Sajda-e-Sahoo' would have to be performed at the end. Some are Sunnah-e-Maukida and therefore to make a habit of missing them is a sin and some are Mustahhab and therefore to perform will gain rewards and to miss will not be a sin.

C91.0 Fardh (Obligatory) actions within Salaah

C91.1 There are seven action within Salaah which are Fardh.
1. Takbeer-e-Tahrima - meaning the first 'Allahu Akbar' (or any other word which would praise Allah) with which the Salaah begins
2. Qayaam - meaning to stand until the Fardh Qiraayat is completed
3. Qiraayat - meaning to pray at least one verse of the Qur'an
4. Ruku - meaning to bend so that that the hands reach the knees
5. Sujood - meaning the forehead to firmly touch the ground and at least one toe on each foot to be flat so that it's base is touching the ground and it's tip is pointing towards the Qibla
6. Qaidah-e-Akhira - meaning when the Rakats of Salaah are completed to sit for the duration it takes so the whole of Tashahhud (attahiyat) is completed until 'Rusooluh'
7. Khurooj-e-Be'sunoo'i - meaning after Qaida-e-Akhira to perform an action with which the Salaah would finish, whether that be Salaam or to talk etc.

C92.0 Wajib (necessary) actions of Salaah

1. In the Takbeer-e-Tahrima to use the words 'Allahu Akbar'
2. To pray the whole of the Alhamdu Surah.
3. To join a Surah or a verse (Ayat) with Alhamdu. In a Fardh Salaah for the first two Rakats and in a Witr, Sunnah or Nafl Salaah in all the Rakats.
4. To pray before a Surah or Ayat, Alhamdu only once.
5. Between Alhamdu and a Surah not to pray anything except 'Ameen' and Bismillah…
6. To go into Ruku as soon as the Qirayat is finished
7. To perform one Sajda after another without having a delayed gap in between. The gap must be no longer than one Rukun, meaning the time it takes someone to say 'Subhanallah' three times.
8. To pause between actions, meaning a gap of time the same as at least one 'Subhanallah' between, Ruku, Sajda, Quwmaa and Jalsa.
9. Quwma, meaning to stand up straight after Ruku.
10. When in Sajda to have three toes on each foot to be flat on the ground and the tips pointing towards Qibla.
11. Jalsa, meaning to sit up between two Sajdas.
12. Qaidah-e-Oola, meaning to sit after two Rakats, if there are more than two Rakats in a Salaah, whether it is a Nafl (voluntary) Salaah.
13. Not to continue further after Tashahhud (Attahiyat) in a Qaida-e-Oola for a Fardh, Witr or Sunnah-e- Maukida Salaah.
14. To pray in both Qaidahs the whole of Tashahhud, in fact, regardless of the amount of Qaidahs in a Salaah to pray the whole of Tashahhud is Wajib, if even one word is left out of Attahiytat the Wajib will be missed.
15. In both Salaams the word Salaam is Wajib, the words 'Alaikum Wa Rahmutullah' is not Wajib.
16. To pray 'Dua-e-Kunoot' in Witr.
17. To perform Takbeer in Kunoot (To lift your hands and say Allahu Akbar in the third Rakat of Witr).
18. All six Takbeers of Eid Salaah's
19. The Takbeers in the second rakat of the Eid Salaah and for them to have the words 'Allahu Akbar.
20. The Imam to pray loudly in all Jehri Salaah and to pray quietly in non Jehri Salaah.
21. To pray all Fardh and Wajib Salaah in routine (meaning to pray the before one's before and the after one's after).
22. To perform only one Ruku in every rakat and to perform only two Sajdas.
23. Not to perform a Qaidah before two rakats and not to perform a Qaida in the third rakat if it is a four rakat Salaah.
24. To perform Sajda-e-Tilawat if an Ayat of Sajda has been prayed.
25. If there has been an error (where a Wajib has been missed) then to perform Sajda-e-Sahoo.
26. There is not to be a gap between two Fardh actions or between two Wajib actions or a Fardh and a Wajib actions longer than the time it takes to say Subhanallah three times.
27. If the Imam is performing Qirayat, whether it is loudly or quietly, the Muqtadees to remain completely quiet.
28. Except for Qirayat, to follow the Imam in all the Wajibs.
C92.1 Except for the Fardh and Wajib actions, all the rest of the actions mentioned in the method of Salaah are either Sunnah or Mustahhab. They should not be missed on purpose, and if they are missed by mistake then it is not necessary to perform Sajda-e-Sahoo nor repeat the Salaah. If however, you repeated the Salaah then it is a good thing.
C92.2 If you want to know in more detail the Sunnahs and Mustahhabs then read either Bahar-e-Shariah or Fatawa-e-Razvia as we have not gone into small detail or abbreviated them here.

C93.0 SAJDA-E-SAHOO (SAJDA FOR FAULTS)
C93.1 When is Sajda-e-Sahoo Wajib ?

C93.2 If those actions which are Wajib in Salaah are not performed by mistake, it is Wajib to perform the Sajda-e-Sahoo to substitute for the action missed.
C94.0 Method of performing Sajda-e-Sahoo

C94.1 The method of performing this is, when you finish praying 'Attahiyat' in the last Qaidah, turn your head to the right side and then perform two Sajdas. Then repeat Attahiyat from the beginning and complete your Salaah.
C94.2 If a Wajib was missed and you did not perform Sajda-e-Sahoo and completed the Salaah, then it is Wajib to repeat the Salaah.
C94.3 If a Wajib is missed deliberately, then a to perform A Sajda-e-Sahoo would not be sufficient and therefore it would be Wajib to repeat the Salaah.
C94.4 If any of the Fardh actions are missed, then Sajda-e-Sahoo would not compensate for them and therefore the Salaah would not count and to repeat the Salaah would be Fardh.

C95.0 Actions which by missing would not make the Sajda-e-Sahoo necessary

C95.1 If the actions that are Sunnah or Mustahhab in Salaah are missed, such as 'Ta'awwuz', 'Tasmee' 'Aameen', 'Takbeers when changing positions', the Tasbeehs (of Ruku and Sajdas) etc. it would not make it necessary to perform Sajda-e-Sahoo, but the Salaah would count [Radd-ul- Mohtar, Guniya]. However, it would be better to repeat it.
C95.2 If in one Salaah many Wajibs are missed, then the two Sajdas of Sahoo would be sufficient, it is not necessary to perform a Sajda-e-Sahoo for ever Wajib missed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, etc.].
C95.3 If in the first Qaidah after Attahiyat and before standing for the third Rakat there is a delay as long as it takes to pray 'Allahumma Salleh Ala Muhammad' then Sajda-e-Sahoo would become Wajib, whether you pray it or not, in both situations Sajda-e-Sahoo would become Wajib [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C95.4 If in Qiraayat etc. at any time you start thinking and there is a gap long enough for someone to say 'Subhanallah' three times, then it would be Wajib to perform Sajda-e-Sahoo [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C95.5 If you think that the first Qaidah is the last Qaidah in a four Rakat Salaah and you perform Salaam and then remember and stand back up and complete the Salaah, you must perform Sajda-e- Sahoo [Alamgiri]. If you forgot to pause between actions then Sajda-e-Sahoo is Wajib [Hindiya].
C95.6 If a Muqtadee had not completed his 'Attahiyat' and the Imam stood up for the third Rakat, it is necessary for the Muqtadee to complete his Attahiyat, regardless of whether it causes delay.
C95.7 If the Muqtadee had not prayed the Tasbeeh in a Ruku or Sajda three times and the Imam finished it and stood up, it is necessary for the Muqtadee to stand up and not finish the rest of the Tasbeeh.
C95.8 If a person forgot to perform the first Qaidah and had only started standing up then he should sit back down and pray Attahiyat and the Salaah would be correct, a Sajda-e-Sahoo would not be necessary. If however, he stood up and was close to completely standing then he should stand up and continue with his Salaah and then finally perform Sajda-e-Sahoo [Shareh Waqia, Hidaaya etc].
C95.9 If you forgot to perform the last Qaidah and had not yet performed a Sajda for the extra Rakat then you should sit back down straight away and perform Sajda-e-Sahoo. If however, you had performed a Sajda for the extra Rakat then except for Maghrib you can join another Rakat and they would all count as Nafl, because your Fardh Salaah would not count and therefore you would have to pray the Fardh Salaah again [Hidaaya, Shareh Waqia].
C95.10 If in the last Qaidah you prayed Tasahhud and then stood back up, you should sit straight back down and as long as you have not performed a Sajda for the extra Rakat, perform Sajda-e-Sahoo and complete the Salaah. If however, you had performed a Sajda in the extra Rakat, your Fardh Salaah would still count but you should join another Rakat and then finally perform Sajda-e-Sahoo and the last two Rakats would count as Nafl, but do not join another Rakat for Maghrib Salaah [Hidaaya, Shareh Waqia].
C95.11 If in one Rakat you performed three Sajdas or two Rukus or forgot the first Qaidah then perform Sajda-e-Sahoo.
C95.12 Order of sequence is obligatory in Qayam, Ruku, Sajda and the last Qaidah, therefore, if you performed Ruku before you performed Qayam then this Ruku is cancelled and will not count and if then you perform another Ruku your Salaah will count otherwise it will not, and in the same way if you performed Sajda before the Ruku and then performed the Ruku and performed the Sajda again after, then the Salaah will count.
C95.13 Order of sequence is obligatory in Qayam, Ruku, Sajda and the last Qaidah meaning, whichever is due first should be done first and whichever is due next should be done next and if this done in the wrong order then the Salaah will not count, for example, if someone performed Sajda before Ruku then their Salaah will not count, however, if they performed the Sajda again after the Ruku meaning they rectified the order of sequence again then their Salaah will count. In the same way if they perform Ruku before Qayam and they stand back in Qayam and then perform another Ruku, their Salaah will count [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C95.14 All Qaidahs in Nafl Salaah are counted as last Qaidahs and therefore are obligatory and so if you forgot to perform a Qaidah and stood up then as long as you have not performed a Sajda for the new Rakat sit back down and perform the Qaidah and then perform Sajda-e-Sahoo and all Wajib Salaah are in the same rule as Fardh Salaah, therefore if you forget to perform the first Qaidah of Witr then the same rule applies as a Fardh Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C95.15 If you forgot to pray Dua-e-Kunoot or forgot to perform the Takbeer-e-Kunoot then perform Sajda-e-Sahoo. Takbeer-e-Kunoot means the Takbeer that is said in the third Rakat after Qirat and is done and then Dua-e-Kunoot is prayed [Alamgiri].

C96.0 What is Sajda-e-Tilaawat?

C96.1 This is the Sajda which becomes Wajib when you pray or hear the verse of Sajda. It's proper method is to stand up and say Allaho-o-Akbar whilst going into Sajda and then pray at least three times 'Subhana Rabbi'al Aalaa' and then whilst saying Allahu Akbar stand back up.

C97.0 Sunnah way of performing Sajda-e-Tilaawat

C97.1 It is Sunnah to say at the start and the end 'Allaho Akbar in Sajda-e-Tilaawat. Also to start the Sajda by standing up and then going into Sajda and then standing back up again after. Both of these Qayams are Mustahhab [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C97.2 If you did not stand before or after the Sajda or you did not say Allaho Akbar or you did not pray 'Subhana Rabbi'al Aala', then even still your Sajda will count. However, you should not miss Takbeer as it is against procedure [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C97.3 When saying the Takbeer you do not lift your hands nor do you pray Attahiyat or perform Salaam in Sajda-e-Tilaawat [Tanweer, Bahar].
C97.4 In total there are fourteen verses in the Qur'an whereby whichever verse is prayed, both the person praying and listening will have to perform Sajda-e-Tilaawat as it will become Wajib on them, whether the person listening made the intention of listening to it or not.

C98.0 Conditions of Sajda-e-Tilaawat

C98.1 Except for Tahrimah, for Sajda-e-Tilaawat all conditions remain which are in Salaah. For example, cleanliness, facing the Qibla, intention, time and covering of the body, also if you have access to water then you cannot perform Sajda-e-Tilaawat by performing Tayammum [Durr-e- Mukhtar, etc.].
C98.2 If a verse of Sajda is prayed in Salaah then it is Wajib in Salaah to perform Sajda and if you delay it you will become a sinner. Delay means to pray three or more verses after the verse of Sajda. If however, the verse is at the end of a Surah then there is no harm in finishing the Surah. For example, in Surah Inshaaq if you performed Sajda at the end of the Surah there is no harm.
C98.3 If you prayed a verse of Sajda in Salaah, but forgot to perform Sajda then as long as you are in the state of Salaah (whether you have performed Salaam) then you must perform it and then perform Sajda-e-Sahoo [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C98.4 If you pray a verse of Sajda in Salaah then to perform it's Sajda is Wajib in Salaah not outside, and if you deliberately missed it then you are a sinner and repentance is necessary as long as you did not perform Ruku and Sajda straight after the verse.
C98.5 It is not a condition to state in the intention for Sajda-e-Tilaawat the verse that you have prayed, but a general intention of Sajda-e-Tilaawat is sufficient.
C98.6 Whatever action breaks the Salaah also breaks the Sajda-e-Tilaawat, such as releasing wind, talking, laughing in Salaah etc. [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C98.7 Sajda does not become Wajib by writing a verse of Sajda or just by looking at the verse [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Guniya].
C98.8 For the Sajda to become Wajib, it is not necessary to pray the whole verse of Sajda, but by just praying the word that makes the verse Wajib and a joining word before or after the word would make the Sajda Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C98.9 By spelling or listening to the spelling of a verse of Sajda does not make the Sajda Wajib [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Qazi Khan].
C98.10 If the translation of a verse of Sajda is prayed or is heard then the Sajda becomes Wajib, whether the person who heard it understands it or not that it was the translation of a verse of Sajda. However, it is important that if he does not know then he should be informed. If however, the verse is prayed and then the translation is prayed then it is not necessary to inform him that this was the translation [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Bahar].
C98.11 If a woman on her menstrual cycle of bleeding after childbirth has prayed the verse then the Sajda won't be necessary for her to perform the Sajda, however those who have heard her pray the verse will have to perform the Sajda as it is still Wajib for them [Bahar].
C98.12 Just as it does not become Wajib for a woman on her menstrual cycle or bleeding after childbirth to perform a Sajda, it also does not become Wajib for her if she hears the verse.
C98.13 If a person for whom it is obligatory to bathe has prayed the verse of Sajda or heard the verse or a person who is not in Wudhu prays or hears it then it still becomes Wajib for them to perform a Sajda.
C98.14 If a child prays a verse of Sajda then it becomes Wajib for those who hear it but not for the child [Alamgiri etc.].
C98.15 If the Imam has prayed the verse of Sajda but did not perform Sajda, then the Muqtadee will also not perform Sajda and continue following the Imam even though they might have heard the verse [Guniya]. Whenever the verse is prayed and for some reason the person praying or hearing do not perform the Sajda then it is Mustahhab to pray "Sam'I Na Wa Ata'na Gufranaka Rabbana Wa'ilaikal Masir" [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C98.16 To pray the whole Surah and to miss the verse of Sajda is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C98.17 If in one Mosque one verse is repeated many times or heard many times then only one Sajda is Wajib even if different people have prayed it. Also if you pray a verse and you hear the same verse from someone else, then again only one Sajda will be Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C99.0 Changing of an Assembly
C99.1 The assembly will not change by;
a) eating one or two bites,
b) drinking one or two gulps,
c) to stand,
d) to walk one or two steps,
e) to reply to a greeting,
f) two talk a couple of words,
g) to walk from one side of the house towards another side.
C99.2 If however, it is a large house with different rooms then the assembly will change by walking from one side to another.
C99.3 If you are in a boat and it is moving then the assembly will not change. The same rule should also apply to a train. If you are on an animal and the animal is moving then the assembly is changing but if you are praying Salaah on the animal then the assembly has not changed.
C99.4 The assembly will change if you eat three bites, or drink three gulps, or walking three steps in a field, to speak three words, to lie down and go to sleep, to pray the Nikah and to buy or sell something [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Guniya, Bahar].
C99.5 To sit in an assembly for a while and to pray the Qur'an or perform a lecture or listen to a lecture or have a religious discussion does not change the assembly, but if between the same verse being repeated you perform a worldly action like to sew a piece of cloth etc. then the assembly will change [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C99.6 If the person hearing the verse is paying attention and to perform the Sajda would not be a strain on them then the verse should be prayed loudly otherwise it should be prayed quietly and if you are not sure whether they are paying attention or not then the verse should be prayed quietly [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C99.7 During the state of illness, the Sajda can be performed by action only, also if you are on a journey and in a vehicle then you can perform action only to fulfil the Sajda and it will count [Alamgiri etc.].

C100.0 Sajda-e-Shukr (Thanks)

C100.1 The method of performing a Sajda for thanking Allah is the same as for Sajda-e-Tilaawat.
C100.2 It is Mustahhab to perform the Sajda-e-Shukr if a child is born, or you have gained wealth, or you have found a lost item, or your illness has gone better, or you have returned from a journey safely or you have obtained a gift.

C101.0 QIRAAYAT - MEANING TO PRAY THE QUR'AN
C101.1 Qiraayat should be so loud that if you are not deaf or there is no loud noise in the background, then you can hear what you are praying yourself and if it is not this loud then the Salaah will not count.
C101.2 In the same way all other situations that require verbal praying has the same rule, for example, slaughtering an animal and to say 'Bismillah Allaho Akbar', to give a divorce (Talaaq), to pray the verse of Sajda that would make the Sajda-e-Tilaawat Wajib, in all these situations the voice should be so loud that you can hear it yourself [Miraqul Falaah etc.].
C101.3 It is Wajib for the Imam to pray loudly (Johr) in the first two Fardh Rakats of Fajr, Maghrib and 'Isha and for the Rakats of Ju'ma, Eids, Tarawih and the Witr for Ramadan. It is Wajib for the Imam to pray quietly (Ahista) in the third Rakat of Maghrib, the third and fourth Rakat of 'Isha and all the Rakats of Dhuhr and 'Asr.
C101.4 To pray loudly for the Imam means he prays loud enough that the people in the first row can hear and quietly means he can hear his voice himself.
C101.5 To pray loudly but only one or two people next to you can hear is not counted as Johr but is counted as Ahista [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. In the loud (Johri) Salaah a person praying on their own has got the choice of praying loudly or quietly, it is better to pray loudly.
C101.6 If a person praying on their own is praying a Qadha Salaah then it is Wajib to pray quietly in all Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. If a person was praying quietly and another person joined in then if it is a Johri Salaah then they must pray the rest loudly and it is not necessary to repeat the part he has prayed quietly.
C101.7 If you forgot to add a Surah and went into Ruku and then remembered, you must stand back up and pray the Surah and then perform the Ruku again and finally perform Sajda-e-Sahoo, if you do not perform the Ruku again then the Salaah will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C101.8 If you are not on a journey and you have enough time then it is Sunnah to pray 'Tawal-e- Mufassal' (long Surahs) in Fajr and Dhuhr, 'Awsat-e-Mufassal' (medium Surahs) in 'Asr and 'Isha and 'Qasaar-e-Mufassal' (short Surahs) in Maghrib, whether you are an Imam or are praying on your own (Munfarid).

C102.0 Surahs which are Tawal, Awsat and Qasaar-e-Mufassal

C102.1 Surahs between Surah-e-Hijraat to Surah-e- Burooj are Tawal-e-Mufassal. Surahs between Surah-e- Burooj to Surah Lamyakunallazi are known as Awsat-e-Mufassal and Surahs from Lamyakun to the end are known as Qasaar-e-Mufassal.
C102.2 If there is no rush in a journey then it is Sunnah to pray Surah-e-Burooj or an equivalent size Surah in Fajr and Dhuhr and in 'Asr and 'Isha a shorter Surah than that and in Maghrib to pray the short Surahs of Qasaar-e-Mufassal, if however, you are in a hurry then you can pray whatever is easier [Alamgiri].
C102.3 During times of difficulty such as the time is going to go or you are afraid of a thief or scared of an enemy then you can pray whatever you wish whether you are on a journey or not and even if you cannot complete the Wajibs of the Salaah you are allowed to miss them also. For example, the time of Fajr is so short that you can only pray one verse each then do this [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul- Mohtar] but after the Sun has risen repeat this Salaah [Bahar].
C102.4 Whilst praying the Sunnahs of Fajr, there is a fear that the Jamaat for the Fardh Salaah will be missed then you should only perform the Wajibs, you should miss Sana and Ta'awwuz and in Ruku and Sajda you should only pray the Tasbeeh once [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C102.5 In Witr Salaah the Prophet prayed 'Sabb-I-ismi Rabb'I'kal A'alaa' in the first Rakaat and 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kaafiroon' in the second Rakaat and 'Qul Huwal Lah Ho Ahad in the third Rakaat. Therefore, as a gesture these Surahs should be prayed and on occasions 'Inna Anzalna' instead of 'Sabb-I-Ismi'.
C102.6 It is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to pray the Qur'an backwards, for example, to pray 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' in the first Rakaat and 'Alam Tara Kaifa' in the second Rakaat is not allowed, however, if it is done by mistake then there is no harm.
C102.7 There is no harm in teaching the Para Amma backwards to children so that it is easy to learn [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C102.8 If by mistake you prayed in the second Rakaat an earlier Surah than the first Rakaat, then whether it is only one word you have prayed you must continue, you are not allowed to stop and start another one. For example, in the first Rakaat you prayed 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kaafiroon' and in the second Rakaat you started by mistake 'Alam Tara' then you must continue this Surah.

C103.0 The Rule of Missing a Surah in Between
C103.1 To miss a Surah between two Surahs is Makrooh. However, if the middle Surah is a larger Surah than the first one then this is allowed. For example, there is no harm in praying 'Inna Anzalna' after 'Watteena Wazzaytoona', however, you should not pray 'Qul Huwallah' after 'Iza Jaa'a' [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C103.2 It is preferable if the Qiraayat in Fardh Salaah in the first Rakaat is slightly longer than the second Rakaat and in Fajr the Qiraayat should be two thirds and one third in the second Rakaat [Alamgiri].
C103.3 It is Sunnah in Jum'a and Eid Salaah to pray 'Sabb-I-Ismi' in the first Rakaat and 'Hal Ataaka' in the second Rakaat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtaar].
C103.4 Pray equal size Surahs in both Rakaats of Sunnah and Nafl Salaah [Muniya].
C103.5 To pray the same Surah in both Rakaats in a Nafl Salaah or to repeat the same Surah many times in one Rakaat is perfectly allowed [Guniya].

C104.0 To make a mistake in Qiraayat

C104.1 The general rule here is that if a mistake is made and the whole meaning changes then the Salaah will break, otherwise not.
C104.2 If the reason of praying a different letter instead of the proper letter is because you cannot pray the proper letter then it is still necessary for you to try and pronounce correctly.
C104.3 However, if it is due to carelessness, like some of today's Hafiz and Alims do have the ability but are careless and hence miss letters out then if the meaning of the verse changes then the Salaah will be void and all Salaah prayed like this will have to be made Qadha.

C105.0 Action for those who cannot pronounce correctly

C105.1 It is necessary for those people who cannot pronounce letters correctly to try day and night until they can. If they have the opportunity to pray Salaah behind those who can pronounce correctly then they should always do this. Or they can pray the verses which they can pronounce correctly, and if both options cannot be done then with effort their Salaah will count and people like them can pray behind people like this [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariah etc.].
C105.2 If someone prays 'Subhana Rabbi-al Azueem' as 'Subhana Rabbi-al-Ajeem' (or uses a zeh instead of a zoi) then their Salaah will break.


C106.0 Praying the Qur'an outside Salaah
C106.1 The Qur'an should be prayed in a clear and concise manner. It should not be sung as this is not allowed but in fact should be taken care that the pronunciation is done accurately.
C106.2 It is better to pray the Qur'an by looking at it than off by heart [Alamgiri].
C106.3 It is Mustahhab to:
a) perform Wudhu, b) face the Qibla, c) wear nice clothes d) and pray the Qur'an,

C106.4 When starting to pray first of all say ''Audhubillah..'As this is Wajib and when starting a Surah pray 'Bismillah..' as this is Sunnah otherwise if you are praying a Mustahhab verse and it is referring to Allah's self then to pray Bismillah after 'Audhubillah is Maukidah.
C106.5 If you talk between praying a verse and your conversation is of a worldly nature then pray Bismillah again, and if it is of a religious nature such as replying to a Salaam, or answering to the Adhan, or saying 'Subhanallah' or praying the Kalima then there is no need to say 'Audhubillah again [Guniya etc.].
C106.6 If you have started praying from Surah Baraat then pray both 'Audhubillah and Bismillah. If however, Surah Baraat comes in the duration of you praying then continue and don't pray Bismilla. The commonly known statement that if you start with Surah Baraat there is still no need to pray 'Audhubillah or Bismillah is wrong. The other statement that if Surah Baraat comes in the duration of you praying then pray 'Audhubillah but not Bismillah is also wrong [Bahar-e-Shariah].
C106.7 It is not good to finish the whole Qur'an in less than three days [Alamgiri].
C106.8 When there is a Qur'an praying ceremony (Khatam) then it is better to pray 'Qul Huwallaho Ahad' three times.
C106.9 There is no harm in praying the Qur'an whilst lying down as long as the legs are folded and the mouth is open, also there is no harm in praying the Qur'an whilst walking and working as long as you are not distracted, otherwise it is Makrooh [Guniya].
C106.10 When the Qur'an is prayed loudly in a gathering then it is obligatory for all present to listen if the reason for the gathering is to pray the Qur'an, otherwise if only one listens then it is sufficient regardless if the others are busy in their work [Guniya, Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C106.11 If all the people in the gathering pray the Qur'an loudly then this is Haram. Often in an Urs or Fatiha all the people pray the Qur'an loudly individually, this is Haram. If there are a few people in a gathering then all should pray quietly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar] .
C106.12 It is not allowed to pray the Qur'an in town centres and where people are working because if people do not listen then the sin will be upon the person praying.
C106.13 If while praying the Qur'an a religious leader, Sultan, king, an Islamic scholar, a spiritual leader etc walk into the room then you are allowed to stop and stand up for respect [Guniya, Bahar- e-Shariah].
C106.14 If a person is praying the Qur'an incorrectly then it is Wajib for the person listening to correct them, but the condition is that there is no jealously or hatred in doing so [Guniya, Bahar].

C107.0 Respecting the Qur'an
C107.1 It is better to pray the Qur'an loudly as long as you do not disturb a person praying Salaah, or sleeping, or an ill person.
C107.2 It is not a good thing to write the Qur'an on walls or Mehrabs.
C107.3 It is very bad to learn the Qur'an off by heart and then forgetting it. Such a person will wake up blind and with leprosy on the day of judgement.
C107.4 You should not have your back towards the Qur'an, or spread your legs around it, or raise your feet higher than it, or stand on a higher place whilst placing the Qur'an in a lower place.
C107.5 No book should be placed on top of the Qur'an whether it is a book of Fiqh or Hadith.
C107.6 If the Qur'an becomes very wet or torn and can no longer be used to pray from, then it should be wrapped and buried in a clean place, there should also be a coffin so that soil does not get on it.
C107.7 An old Qur'an which can no longer be of use should not be burnt but buried.
C107.8 A cloth should not be placed on top of the case that contains the Qur'an.
C107.9 If a person has left the Qur'an in their house for blessings and auspiciousness and does not pray it then there is no sin and because the intention is good one they will gain reward [Qazi Khan].

C108.0 JAMAAT - CONGREGATIONAL PRAYERS

C108.1 There has been a lot of emphasis given to Jamaat and it carries a lot of reward, upto the extent that a Salaah prayed with Jamaat gains reward twenty seven times more than a Salaah prayed on it's own.
C108.2 Jamaat is Wajib for males and to miss it even once without cause is a sin and should be punished and for those who make a habit of missing Jamaat is a wrongdoer (Fasiq) and his statement for witnessing cannot be accepted and should be severely punished. If his neighbours ignored the fact that he was missing Jamaat then they are also sinners.

C109.0 What Salaah have the condition of Jamaat
C109.1 For Friday prayers (Ju'ma) and Eid prayers, Jamaat is a condition and without Jamaat the Salaah cannot be prayed.
C109.2 The Tarawih Salaah is Sunnah-e-Kifayya, meaning if some people within an area performed it then the rest will not be responsible and if no-one prayed it in an area then all will have done a bad thing and would be responsible.
C109.3 Jamaat in the Witr prayer during the month of Ramadan is Mustahhab.
C109.4 Jamaat in Sunnah and Nafl Salaah is Makrooh and except for the month of Ramadan it is also Makrooh for Witr Salaah.
C109.5 If you are aware that if by washing the body parts three times in Wudhu, you will miss a Rakaat then it is better to only wash them once and obtain the Rakaat. If you are aware that by washing the Wudhu parts three times you will not miss a Rakaat but will miss the first Takbeer, then it is better to wash the parts three times [Sagiri, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C110.0 Jamaat Thania (Duplicate Jamaat)
C110.1 If in an area there is a fixed Imam in a Mosque and after calling the Adhan and Iqamat and praying the Sunnahs, the Imam has then lead the Jamaat prayers, then to pray that Salaah again standing a different Jamaat is Makrooh after calling the Adhan and Iqamat again.
C110.2 If however, the second Jamaat is prayed without calling another Adhan then there is no problem as long as it is prayed slightly away from the Mehrab.
C110.3 If the first Jamaat was prayed without an Adhan or with a quiet Adhan or by other non regular people then the Jamaat is to be called again and this second Jamaat is not Jamaat Thania. [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C111.0 What Reasons allow the Jamaat to be missed
C111.1 The following reasons can be used to miss Jamaat;
a) Such an illness that it would be very difficult to go to the Mosque
b) The weather is very cold or very cloudy, or very windy
c) You have a bad urge of excretion, urination or releasing wind
d) You are scared of an aggressor
e) You are scared that you will miss your group
f) You are blind or disabled
g) You are so old that it is very difficult to go to the Mosque
h) You are afraid that your possession or food will be destroyed
i) A person who is poor and owes money and is scared of bumping into the lender
j) You are looking after an ill person and if you leave them they will have difficulty or be afraid.
All the above are causes that allow you to miss Jamaat.
C111.2 Women are not allowed to attend any Jamaat, not day Salaah or night Salaah, or Ju'ma and Eid, whether she is young or old. The same rule applies for women attending lectures, i.e. they are not allowed to attend [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C112.0 Where does a single Muqtadee stand?

C112.1 A single male Muqtadee even if he is a child should stand on the right side and parallel with the Imam.
C112.2 It is Makrooh for a single Muqtadee to stand on the Imam's left side or behind the Imam.
C112.3 If there are two Muqtadees then they should stand behind the Imam, to parallel with the Imam is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi.
C112.4 If there are more than two Muqtadees then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to stand parallel with the Imam [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C113.5 One person was stood in line with the Imam and then another person joined then the Imam should go forward and the person that has joined the Jamaat should stand next to the present Muqtadee.
C113.6 If the Imam cannot move forward then the Muqtadee should move backwards or the person arriving should pull the Muqtadee back. However, if there is only one Muqtadee then it is better if he comes back and if there are two then it is better for the Imam to move forward.

C113.0 Rules of rows (Saff)
C113.1 The rows should be straight and the people should be joined alongside each other. There should not be a gap between the people in the rows and the shoulders should be level and the Imam should be in the front in the middle.
C113.2 It is better to stand in the first row and close to the Imam. However, in the Jananza Salaah it is better to stand in the back row [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C113.3 The Muqtadee should say the Takbeer-e-Tahrima with or after the Imam. If the Muqtadee said the word 'Allah' with the Imam and 'Akbar' before the Imam then the Salaah will not count.
C113.4 The Muqtadee cannot pray the Qur'an in any Salaah, not when the Imam prays loudly or quietly because whatever the Imam prays is sufficient for the Muqtadee [Hidaya etc.].
C113.5 The method of the rows should be that the men are in the front rows then children then finally women [Hidaya].

C114.0 Who should be an Imam
C114.1 The Imam should be a Muslim, male, sane, adult, one who knows the rules of Salaah and a non Ma'zoor (has no illness). If any of the above six aspects are not found in an Imam then the Salaah will not count behind him.
C114.2 A Ma'zoor can be an Imam for a Muqtadee with the same illness or worse than him. If however, both the Imam and Muqtadee have two different types of illnesses e.g. one suffers from releasing wind and the other suffers from droplets of urine then they cannot be an Imam for each other [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C114.3 A person with a Tayammum can be an Imam for a person with Wudhu [Hidaya etc.].
C114.4 A person who performs Masah over leather socks can be an Imam for a person washing his feet [Hidaya etc.].
C114.5 A person who prays Salaah standing can be a Muqtadee of a person who prays Salaah seated [Hidaya].
C114.6 The person who performs Ruku and Sajda cannot pray behind a person who prays by action only. However, if both the Imam and Muqtadee both pray with actions then they can follow each other [Hidaya].
C114.7 A naked person cannot be an Imam of a person who has covered his body [Hidaya].

C115.0 Order of praying Salaah behind a person with wrong beliefs
C115.1 To make a 'Bud Mazhab' (person with corrupt beliefs) whose beliefs have not gone outside the folds of Islam is a sin and to pray a Salaah behind him would make the Salaah Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and would have to be repeated as this would be Wajib [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Alamgiri].
C115.2 To make an open wrongdoer (Fasiq Mu'allin) such as a person who drinks alcohol, gambles, adulterer, one who obtains interest money, one who tells tales etc. those who commit big sins, an Imam, is a sin and Salaah behind them would be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and to repeat it is Wajib [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]
C115.3 Salaah behind those Bad Mazhabs whose beliefs have gone out of the folds of Islam such as Rafzi (Shiites, even if they only reject the fact of Hazrat Abubakr being a Caliph or a Sahhabi or insults the Shaikhain Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhuma), those who believe that the Qur'an is man made, those who reject intercession or seeing Allah on the day of Hashr, or the punishment of the grave or the existence of Kiraman Katibeen cannot be performed [Alamgiri, Guniya].
C115.4 There is an even more stricter rule for those who call themselves Muslims and in fact follow the Sunnahs but still reject some important beliefs of religion (Zarooriyat-e-Deen) and insult Allah and His Prophet or at least believe those who insult, as Muslims, Salaah behind these is also strictly not allowed.

C116.0 Order of following a Fasiq
C116.1 Following a Fasiq is not allowed except for in Ju'ma as there is no alternative for this, for all the other Salaah if there are other Mosques in the vicinity then you should go. If there are other nearby Mosques that perform the Ju'ma prayers then you should go there [Guniya, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Fatahul Qadir].
C116.2 For the Imam to stand alone on a higher platform is Makrooh, if the height is small then it is Makrooh Tanzihi and if the height is big the it is Makrooh Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C116.3 If the Imam is in a lower place and the Muqtadees in a higher place it is also Makrooh and is against the Sunnah [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C116.4 A Masbook when finishing his missed Rakaats is a Munfarid.

C117.0 Definition of a Masbook
C117.1 A Masbook is a person who joins in the Jamaat after the Imam has already prayed some Rakaats and he remains with the Jamaat until the end of the Salaah. A Munfarid is a person who prays the Salaah on his own and not with Jamaat.
C117.2 If a Masbook found the Imam in the Qaidah then he should say Allahu Akbar whilst standing and fold his arms like normal in Qayam, then whilst saying Allahu Akbar he should sit down and join the Jamaat. If he found them in Ruku or Sajda then he should do the same by performing Takbeer- e-Tahrima and then join the Jamaat, if he however, when saying the first Allahu Akbar bent too far as if already nearly in Ruku then the Salaah will not count.
C117.3 If the Masbook joined the Jamaat for a four Rakaat Salaah in the fourth Rakaat then after the Imam has performed the Salaam he should stand up. He should then pray one Rakaat with Alhamdu and Surah and then sit down and perform Qaidah. He should then stand back up and pray Alhamdu and Surah in this Rakaat and then perform another Rakaat and pray only Alhamdu and then go into the last Qaidah and finish the Salaah as normal. Meaning except for the Qaidah with the Imam he should perform two more Qaidahs. The first Qaidah after one Rakaat and the other Qaidah after two more Rakaats.
C117.4 If the Masbook joins the Maghrib Salaah in the third Rakaat then after the Imam has performed Salaam he should stand up and pray Alhamdu and a Surah and then perform Ruku and Sajda and then perform a Qaidah. He should then stand back up and pray another Rakaat with Alhamdu and Surah and then perform Ruku and Sajda and the perform the last Qaidah and finish the Salaah as normal. Meaning in both the Rakaats you have to perform a Qaidah and you have to pray Alhamdu and a Surah so in this situation there has been two additional Qaidahs after the Imam has performed Salaam.
C117.5 If you have joined the Jamaat in the third Rakaat of a four Rakaat Salaah then after the Imam has performed Salaam pray two Rakaats and in both Rakaats you must pray Alhamdu and a Surah and then perform the last Qaidah and finish the Salaah as usual.
C117.6 If you have missed the first Rakaat then after the Imam has performed Salaam pray one Rakaat with Alhamdu and a Surah.
C117.7 If the Masbook performed Salaam with the Imam by mistake then the Salaah has not gone but he should stand up and finish his Salaah. If he performed the Salaam with the Imam exactly at the same time then no Sajda-e-Sahoo is necessary and if the Salaam was performed after the Imaam then Sajda-e-Sahoo is Wajib. If the Masbook performed the Salaam with the Imam deliberately thinking that he should perform the Salaam with the Imam then his Salaah has become void and he will have to pray it again [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C118.0 When you should break a Fardh Salaah and join the Jamaat

C118.1 Someone started a four Rakaat Fardh Salaah alone and he had not yet performed the Sajda of the first Rakaat and a group next to him started the Salaah with Jamaat, then he should break his Salaah and join the Salaah. Also for Fajr and Maghrib even if he has performed the Sajda for the first Rakaat, he should still break the Salaah and join the Jamaat.
C118.2 If in the four Rakaat Salaah he has performed a Sajda for the first Rakaat then he should not break the Salaah but pray two Rakaats and then finish the Salaah after the second Rakaat, and then he should join the Jamaat.
C118.3 If he has prayed three Rakaats then he cannot break the Salaah but he should finish his Salaah alone and then he can join the Jamaat with the intention of praying a Nafl Salaah. He however, cannot join the Jamaat with the intention of Nafl after 'Asr Salaah because you cannot pray a Nafl after 'Asr Salaah.
C118.4 In a four Rakaat Salaah you had not performed the Sajda for the third Rakaat then you should break the Salaah and join the Jamaat.
C118.5 If you want to break the Salaah then there is no need to sit down but whilst standing up make the intention to break it and perform Salaam to one side.
C118.6 If you started a Nafl, Sunnah or a Qadha Salaah and a Jamaat started then do not break the Salaah but join the Jamaat after finishing your Salaah. If you started a Nafl Salaah with the intention of four Rakaats and had only prayed one or two then finish two Rakaats and join the Jamaat. If you are in the third Rakaat then finish the Salaah and then join the Jamaat.
C118.7 To join the Jamaat you can only break the Salaah when the Jamaat is being started where you are praying. If you are praying in the home and the Jamaat has started at the Mosque or you are praying in one Mosque and a Jamaat has started in another Mosque then you cannot break the Salaah to join that Jamaat, even if you have not performed the Sajda of the first Rakaat you still cannot break the Salaah [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C118.8 It is obligatory for the Muqtadee to follow the Imam for the obligatory actions of the Salaah, meaning, if the Muqtadee performed an obligatory action before the Imam and did not do at the same time or after the Imam then the Salaah will become void. For example the Muqtadee went into the Sajda before the Imam and the Imam had not yet gone into Sajda and the Muqtadee lifted his head from Sajda then his Salaah will become void unless he repeats that Sajda after the Imam then his Salaah will not become void [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C118.9 If the Muqtadee performed the Sajda before the Imam but the Imam went into the Sajda before the Muqtadee lifted his head, then the Sajda will count but to do this is Haram [Alamgiri].
C118.10 It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a Muqtadee to stand at the back on his own if there is space in the rows in front. If there is no space available then there is no problem, however, if he can, he should pull someone from in front backwards so that he can stand adjacent to each other. He must remember that the person he is pulling back is aware of this rule otherwise he might break his Salaah [Alamgiri] and if necessary then he should make an indication and if the other person does not come back to the last row then it won't be Makrooh to pray alone in the last row [Fatahul Qadir, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C119.0 Method of starting a Jamaat
C119.1 The Jamaat should be set up as follows;
a) When the Mustahhab time for Salaah arrives then the Adhan should be called.
b) The people should then attend the Mosque or where the Salaah is going to take place with Wudhu and if they have not prayed the Sunnahs at home then they should pray them and then sit down ready in rows and the Imam should sit in his place.
c) The Mu'azzin should then call the Iqamat and when he reaches 'Hayya Alal Falaah' all the people
d) and the Imam should stand up and just before 'Qad Qamatis Salaat' the Imam should make the intention and say Allaho-Akbar and start the Salaah,
e) the Muqtadee should follow the Imam and say Allaho-Akbar and pray Thana and then the Muqtadees should remain quiet and the Imam should continue
f) and when the Imam goes into Ruku and Sajda the Muqtadees should follow and complete the Salaah with the Imam.
g) Except for Alhamdu and a Surah everything that is prayed in Salaah should be prayed by the Muqtadees.
h) If someone comes after some Rakaats have already been prayed then he should make the intention and join the Jamaat.
i) At the end when the Imam performs Salaam he should not perform Salaam but stand up and finish the Rakaats off that he missed and then perform Salaam and finish the Salaah.
j) After the Salaam the Imam should turn to his right or left side and face the Muqtadees and raise his hands in front of his chest and perform Dua and the Muqtadees should also perform Dua.
k) After the Dua they should move from their place and pray the Sunnahs etc.
l) The Imam should say the Takbeer-e-Tahrima before 'Qad Qamatis Salaat' and the Muqtadees should say it after the Imam [Alamgiri].

C120.0 Actions that break the Salaah
C120.1 Speaking nullifies the Salaah, meaning to speak in Salaah would break the Salaah whether it was done purposely or by mistake one half of a word or more.
C120.2 Speech that breaks the Salaah is when the voice is loud enough so that you can hear it yourself even if it makes no sense.
C120.3 If you greet someone even by mistake the Salaah will break whether you have only got to say 'Assalam' and have not had the chance to say 'Alaikum'.
C120.4 If you reply to someone by voice then the Salaah will break and if you make an indication by hand or head then this is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C120.5 If you sneeze in Salaah then do not say 'Alhamdulillah', if however, you do the Salaah will not break [Alamgiri].
C120.6 If you say 'Alhamdulillah' in reply to hearing good news or when hearing bad news 'Inna Lillahe Wa inna Ilaihi Ra'ji'oon' or when you are shocked 'Subhanallah' or 'Allaho Akbar' then the Salaah will break, if the words are not said in reply to the news then the Salaah will not break.
C120.7 When clearing the throat and two words are said such as 'Akh too' and there is not a real necessity then the Salaah will break. If there is a real need such as for a health reason or you needed to clear your throat because when praying the Qur'an you had difficulty, or you needed to inform the Imam of a mistake, or you needed to make someone aware that you were praying the Salaah then the Salaah will not break.
C120.8 If the Muqtadee corrected someone except for his Imam by saying a verse of the Qur'an then the Salaah will break.
C120.9 If the Imam took a correction off anyone except for his Muqtadees then the Salaah will break.
C120.10 If someone due to pain or difficulty said 'aah' 'ooh' 'oof' 'tuf' or cried out loudly and a sound was heard then the Salaah will break. If someone cried and no sound was heard only tears dropped then the Salaah will not break [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If from an ill person the words 'aah' 'ooh' 'tuf' came out without his control then the Salaah will not break. In the same way the words that come out when sneezing, coughing, yawning which are without control does not break the Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C120.11 If when blowing, no noise is made then this is the same as breathing and the Salaah does not break but to do this on purpose is Makrooh, and if by blowing, two words are said such as 'oof' 'tuf' then the Salaah will break [Guniya].
C120.12 If when praying the Qur'an you physically read it whilst in Salaah or read it off the Mehrab will break the Salaah. If you are praying the Qur'an off by heart and your view went on the Mehrab or somewhere where the Qur'an was written then the Salaah will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C120.13 If you perform Amal-e-Kasir and is not part of Salaah or done to correct the Salaah, then the Salaah will break. Amal-e-Qalil will not break the Salaah. Amar-e-Kasir is an act whereby if someone from far looked at the person praying Salaah, they would be certain that he is not in Salaah or they have a definite doubt that they are in Salaah and this would break the Salaah. Amal-e-Qalil is when a person from far has doubt whether he is in Salaah or not, then this would not break the Salaah.
C120.14 If you wore a top or trousers or a 'Tehband' whilst in Salaah then the Salaah will break.
C120.15 To eat or drink in Salaah will break the Salaah, whether it is large in quantity or small, whether it was eaten by mistake or deliberately upto the extent that if an item the size of a linseed was swallowed without even chewing it or a drop of water fell into the mouth and you swallowed it, then the Salaah will break.
C120.16 Death, insanity, unconsciousness, all will break the Salaah. If you wake up before the time has passed then perform the Ada Salaah again, and if you wake up after the time of Salaah then perform Qadha, as long as it is within twenty-four hours meaning before the time of six Salaah has passed. If you regain consciousness or sanity after six Salaah has passed then the Qadha is not Wajib [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C120.17 If you broke your Wudhu deliberately or for some reason a bath became obligatory, then the Salaah will break.
C120.18 If you missed an obligatory aspect of Salaah and did not perform it in that Salaah then the Salaah will break.
C120.19 If you missed a condition of Salaah without cause, then the Salaah will break.
C120.20 If after the last Qaidah you remembered that you had to perform a Sajda for that Salaah or a Sajda for Tilaawat and you performed that and then did not repeat the last Qaidah, then the Salaah will break.
C120.21 If you performed an act whilst you were sleeping in Salaah and then you woke up again and did not perform that act again, then the Salaah will not count.

C121.0 When can you kill a snake or scorpion whilst in Salaah
C121.1 The Salaah will not break by killing a snake or scorpion as long as you do not have to move more than three steps or hit more than three strikes. If you have to move more than three steps or have to make more than three strikes then the Salaah will break.
C121.2 You have the permission to kill a snake or scorpion whilst praying Salaah even if it breaks the Salaah.
C121.3 It is only a good thing to kill a snake or scorpion when it comes in front of you and you are afraid it might bite you. If you are sure it will not harm you then it is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
C121.4 By scratching three times in one act breaks the Salaah. Meaning if you scratch and then replace your hand, you scratch again and replace your hand and you scratch again and replace your hand then your Salaah will break. If you move your hand once and scratch many times then this would be regarded, as scratching just once and therefore the Salaah will not break [Alamgiri, Guniya].
C121.5 Whilst in the Takbeers you mispronounced the words Allahu Akbar by saying Aallah or Aakbar or Akbaar, then in all these situations the Salaah will break. If you mispronounced Allahu Akbar in the Takbeer-e-Tahrima then the Salaah would not start [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Whilst praying the Qur'an you make such a mistake whereby the meaning would change then the Salaah will break.
C121.6 If someone crosses in front of a Namazee then whether it be an animal or a person the Salaah does not break. However, the person crossing will have caused a big sin. If the person was aware of how much of a sin this is then he would wait a hundred years stood still rather than crossing, in fact he would rather be buried there than cross the Namazee.
C121.7 If a person crosses a Namazee in a field and leaves a space of three feet distance (From the place where he performs Sajda) then there is no harm, however, he cannot do this in a house or Mosque.
C121.8 If there is an object in front of the Namazee then you can cross the Namazee with the object in between.

C122.0 Definition of an object
C122.1 An object is such an item that will cause an obstruction.
C122.2 An object should be at least one arm's length in height and one finger in width and a maximum of three arm lengths in height [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C122.3 It is better to put the object in line with the right eyebrow.

C123.0 What should the object be made of
C123.1 The object can be of a tree, human or animal [Guniya].
C123.2 The object for an Imam is sufficient for the Muqtadee, meaning if someone crossed a Muqtadee and not the Imam but an object was placed in front of the Imam then there is no harm [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C123.3 If a Namazee wanted to stop someone crossing him then he should say 'Subhanallah' loudly or start praying the Qur'an loudly or put his hand out but he must be aware that he does not do it too many times otherwise it would end up being Amal-e-Kasir and therefore the Salaah will break [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C124.0 THE MAKROOHATS OF SALAAH

a) To play with the clothes, body or beard is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
b) To fold your clothing. To lift your clothing up from the front or behind when going into Sajda even if it is getting in the way it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, if it is not getting in the way then it is even more Makrooh.
c) To hang a piece of clothing whereby both ends are hanging, like from the head or shoulders, such as a scarf etc. then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
d) If you did not put your arms through the sleeves and just let them hang, then this is Makrooh-e- Tahrimi. [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

C125.0 The order of hanging clothes in Salaah
C125.1 To put a handkerchief on the shoulder whereby one end is hanging in front and the other hanging at the back is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
C125.2 To wear a shawl or blanket whereby both ends are hanging down from each shoulder is not allowed and is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if one end is hanging from one shoulder and the other is wrapped round the body and goes back over the shoulder, then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C125.3 To fold a piece of clothing (sleeves or trouser leg) upwards or inwards is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, whether it was done before praying Salaah or whilst in Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C125.4 For a male to pray Salaah whilst having the hair tied in a knot is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, and if he does this whilst praying Salaah then the Salaah will break.
C125.5 To move stones whilst praying Salaah is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if you cannot perform the Sajda as per the Sunnah then it is Sunnah to move them once. If you cannot perform the Wajib aspects of the Sajda then it is Wajib to move them as many times necessary to perform the Sajda properly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C125.6 To interlock the fingers meaning to insert one hand's fingers into another hand's fingers is Makrooh- e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc], to do this whilst going to Salaah or whilst waiting for Salaah is also Makrooh.
C125.7 To put your hands on your hips is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and you should not do this outside of Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C125.8 To move your head from one side to another is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, even if it is only a small movement. If you do not move your head but just your eyeballs and is without reason then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, if however, you look for a reason to ensure your safety etc. then there is no harm. To look upto the sky is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.
C125.9 To sit between Tashahhud and Sajda like a dog (meaning to join the knees with the chest and to lay the arms flat on the ground) and for men to lay their arms flat when performing Sajda is Makrooh-e- Tahrimi.
C125.10 To wrap yourself inside your clothes or a blanket whereby your hands cannot be seen is Makrooh-e- Tahrimi. Also to do this outside of Salaah is also Makrooh and in a place of danger it is forbidden. To hide your mouth and face is also Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. To pray Salaah whilst someone is sat in front of you facing you is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi.

C126.0 What is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi ?
C126.1 To cough without reason or to yawn without reason is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If you yawn naturally then there is no harm but you should try and stop it and if you cannot then you should bite your lips and if you still cannot then cover your mouth with your hand, whilst in Qayam use your right hand and in all other position use your left.
C126.2 To pray Salaah with only your trousers or 'Tehband' on and there is another blanket on top available then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, and if you have no other clothing available then there is no harm.
C126.3 To delay in the Salaah because you are waiting for someone to join you is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If you are delaying it so that they can join the Salaah then it is all right as long as it is no longer than saying 'Subhanallah' twice [Alamgiri].
C126.4 To pray Salaah with a grave in front and nothing in between is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Alamgiri].

C127.0 To pray Salaah on someone else's land
C128.1 If the land has been stolen or a field where crops are going or a ploughed field then to pray Salaah there is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C128.2 In a cemetery where a place is allocated for Salaah and is does not contain a grave then to pray their is no problem. The problem is when there is a grave in front of where you are praying Salaah and there is no object in between, otherwise if there is a grave on your left, right or behind or there is a grave in front but there is an object in between you and the grave then there is no harm in praying Salaah there [Alamgiri, Guniya, Qazi Khan].

C128.0 To enter a place of worship for Infidels
C128.1 To pray Salaah in an Infidel's place of worship is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi because it is a place for the devil. In fact you are not allowed to go inside them.

C129.0 Order of praying Salaah wearing clothes inside out
C129.1 To wear clothes inside out or to cover yourself with them (with them inside out) is Makrooh-e- Tahrimi. Also to wear a coat and not to tie the belt or to wear a jacket and not to fasten the buttons if you are not wearing anything underneath and therefore your chest is left uncovered then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi and if you are wearing something underneath it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi [Bahar-e- Shariah].
C130.0 Rule of photography
C130.1 To wear a piece of clothing with a photograph on it of a living being will make the Salaah Makrooh- e-Tahrimi. Except for Salaah to wear such clothes is not allowed.
C130.2 If a photograph is over the head or hung on the wall or is where you are performing a Sajda, then Salaah will be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. In the same way if a photograph is on the left or right side of the Namazee then the Salaah will be Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, if it is behind him then it is still Makrooh but less than it being on either side.
C130.3 If the photograph is on the ground and you are not performing Sajda on it then there is no harm [Hidaya, Fatahul Qadir].
C130.4 If the photograph is not of a living being such as, mountain, stream, flowers, building etc. then there is no harm [Fatahul Qadir]. If a photograph is enclosed in a bag or in your pocket then there is no harm in Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C130.5 If you are wearing a piece of clothing containing a photograph on it and you wear another piece on top without a photo on it and it also covers the photo then there is no harm in the Salaah [Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C130.6 If a photograph is in a position of disrespect such as, on the floor where you take off your shoes or you clean your shoes on it or walk over it, as long as it is not on the ground where you perform Sajda then there is no harm even if it is in the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C130.7 If the photograph is so small that when looking at it standing up you cannot differentiate the body parts on the photograph then by having it on the right, left, front or behind the Namazee, it will not make the Salaah Makrooh.
C130.8 If the whole of the face has been destroyed on the photo then there is no harm [Hidaya, etc.]
C130.9 The rules above are for when praying Salaah. As far as keeping a photo, it has been quoted in the Hadith that if there is a photo or a dog in the house then the angels of mercy do not enter it, this is relating to a photo which has not been kept as a form of disrespect or when looking at it you can differentiate the body parts, otherwise it is all right [Fatahul Qadir].
C130.10 To make or have made a photo is Haram, whether it is hand or machine made, the order is the same.

C131.0 Makrooh-e-Tanzihi
C131.1 In Sajda or Ruku, to say the Tasbeeh less than three times is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If however, you do this because there isn't enough time or you are going to miss the train, then there is no problem.
C131.2 To pray Salaah in your working clothes is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If however, no other clothes are available then there is no harm.

C132.0 Praying Salaah with the head uncovered

C132.1 To pray Salaah with the head uncovered due to idleness, meaning by wearing a topi you feel pressure or feel hot, then it is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi. If you don't wear a topi or an Amama (turban) because you feel that the Salaah is not worth and you hold no value of Salaah then this is Kufr. If you do not wear a hat so that you can concentrate on the Salaah and gain more satisfaction then it is Mustahhab [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C132.2 If the topi falls off in Salaah then to lift it up and put it back on is better as long as Amal Kasir does not occur (e.g. lifting it using both hands). If the topi has to be lifted a few times then it is better to leave and if by lifting it will cause distraction to your concentration then it is better to leave it [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C132.3 To remove grass or sand which is stuck on the forehead is Makrooh if it is not causing a problem in praying the Salaah. If you remove it due to pride then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. If it is causing a problem or distraction when praying Salaah then you can remove it. To remove it after Salaah is no problem but in fact should be removed so that it would not create a feeling of pretence [Alamgiri]. In the same way if necessary it is allowed to wipe off the sweat from the forehead and all actions of Amal Qalil are allowed if it is better for the praying of Salaah, any action that has no benefit to Salaah is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
C132.4 If your nose is running in Salaah, then it is better to wipe it than to let the water drip on the floor, and if you are in the Mosque then to wipe it is necessary [Alamgiri].
C132.5 To sit with your legs folded in Salaah is Makrooh if there is no need, and if there is a necessity then there is no problem and to sit like this outside Salaah is no problem [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. When going into the Sajda to touch the floor with your hand before the knees touch the ground and when coming up from Sajda the knees to be lifted before the hands is Makrooh if there is no necessity.
C132.6 It is Makrooh to have your head higher or lower than the back when in Ruku [Guniya].
C132.7 It is Makrooh when standing, to lift your legs at different times.
C132.8 If a mosquito or lice are causing you difficulty then there is no harm in killing them as long as Amal-e-Kasir is not done [Guniya, Bahar].

C133.0 Praying Salaah on the Mosque's roof is Makrooh
C133.1 It is Makrooh to pray Salaah on the Mosque's roof [Alamgiri].
C133.2 If someone is sat or stood up and is talking, there is no harm in praying Salaah behind him as long as your Salaah is not distracted or your attention is not disturbed. Also there is no harm in praying Salaah behind the Qur'an or a sword or someone sleeping and it is not Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C134.0 Fire in front of a Namazee
C134.1 There is a problem by having fire in front of a Namazee and there is no problem by having a candle or light in front [Alamgiri].
C134.2 To wave away with the hand a mosquito or fly without cause is Makrooh [Alamgiri].
C134.3 To pray Salaah in front of anything that causes distraction to the heart is Makrooh such as jewellery etc.
C134.4 To run because of Salaah is Makrooh [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C135.0 To break Salaah in difficulty
C135.1 Situations when you are allowed to break Salaah;
a) Someone who is in difficulty is asking for help and is calling this Namazee,
b) Someone is drowning or will catch fire,
c) a blind person will fall in a ditch or a person is going to fall in a well, in all these situations to break the Salaah is Wajib when this Namazee has the power to help him [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C135.2 If you are feeling the need to go to the toilet or you have seen enough impurity on your clothes that is allowed or the Namazee has been touched by a unknown woman, then in all three situations it is better to break the Salaah as long as the time of Jamaat time is not passing, and if you have an urge to go to the toilet then it is allowed to miss the Jamaat time, but you must not let the Salaah time pass [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C135.3 To break Salaah is allowed in order to kill a snake or an animal that will harm you and you are sure that it will.
C135.4 It is allowed to break Salaah in order to chase after an animal that has ran away or there is a threat that a wolf will harm your goats.

C136.0 To break Salaah so that you can stay away from trouble
C136.1 If there is going to be a loss of more than one Dirham in value (approx. 30p) to yourself or someone else, for example, your milk that is boiling will over-boil or the cooking of meat will burn or a crow etc. will fly off with your food, then in these situations it is allowed to break Salaah [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C136.2 If you are praying a Nafl Salaah and your mother, father, granddad or grandmother calls you but they are not aware that you are in Salaah, then you should break the Salaah and answer them [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C137.0 RULES OF A MOSQUE

C137.1 Close to Allah the best place is the Mosque and the worst is the town centre (shopping areas).

C137.2 Dua of going into the MosqueWhen you enter a Mosque, first pray the Durood and then pray this Dua: 'Rabbigh Firli Dhunubi Waftahli Abwaaba Rahmatik' and when coming out of the Mosque first pray the Durood and then pray this Dua 'Rabbigh Firli Zunubi Waftahli Abwaaba Fadlik'
C137.3 Pointing the soles of your feet towards the Qibla is Makrooh, whether you do it when sleeping or when you are awake. The same rule applies for small children and that it is Makrooh to have their feet pointing towards Qibla and the person who has laid them down will obtain the sin.
C137.4 It is Haram to cause litter or any other sort of dirtiness on the Mosque's roof, you must respect the roof of the Mosque as you would respect the Mosque itself [Guniya].
C137.5 To climb on the roof of the Mosque without reason is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C137.6 To make the Mosque an access-way, meaning to go through it to get to the other side of the road etc. is not allowed. If you make a habit of this then you will become a wrongdoer (Fasiq). If someone goes in the Mosque with this intention then regrets it he must either come out of a different door than the one he intended to come out from or pray Salaah there and then come out or if he has not performed Wudhu then he can come out of the door he went in from [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C137.7 You are not allowed to urinate in a container or obtain blood in the Mosque.
C137.8 To take a child or a mentally ill person into the Mosque when you are in doubt that they might cause excretion or urinate then it is Haram and if not then it is Makrooh.
C137.9 To write the Qur'an on walls of the Mosque or on the Mehrab is not a good thing because there is the possibility that the words might drop off and hence will be abused and for the same reason of disrespect to write the Qur'an on a pillow, on the ground, on the bed or tablecloth or even on the prayer mat is not allowed [Alamgiri, Bahar].
C137.10 To perform Wudhu inside the Mosque (Jamaat Khana) or to spit, clean your nose or put dirt on the walls of the Mosque or on the carpet or underneath the carpet is forbidden. If you have a need to spit or clean your nose the use a handkerchief [Alamgiri]. To burn impure oil or use an impure substance in the Mosque is forbidden.
C137.11 If a place within the Mosque has been designated from when the Mosque was built as an area to perform Wudhu then you can do so and can do it using a container but the condition is that you be very careful that splashes do not enter the Mosque [Alamgiri].
C137.12 After Wudhu to shake off the water from your hands or face in the Mosque is forbidden [Bahar].
C137.13 Make sure that you do not put the dirt swept from the Mosque in a place where it is open to disrespect.
C137.14 It is not allowed to plant trees in the Mosque, however, if the ground is damp and therefore needs a tree to be planted there or the pillars are weak and require additional support then it is allowable to plant trees in the Mosque [Alamgiri etc.].
C137.15 To ensure that the rules of the Mosque are adhered to, you are allowed to build a room or partition inside the Mosque [Alamgiri].
C137.16 It is Haram to beg inside the Mosque and to give a beggar some money is also not allowed [Muslim etc.]. It is not allowed to go inside the Mosque after eating or putting on a substance that gives off a foul stench.
C137.17 You are not allowed to go inside the Mosque after eating raw garlic or onions until the smell disappears. The same rule applies to all those items that smell and the Mosque should be protected from it until the smell goes, in the same way if an ill person has applied ointment or medication that has a bad smell should not be allowed in the Mosque and neither should a person who suffers from a disease such as leprosy or skin disease etc.
C137.18 A person who has a habit of using bad language or has an abusive manner should also be prevented from going into the Mosque [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C137.19 It is not allowed to talk inside the Mosque of unnecessary things and neither is speaking in a loud voice [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Sagiri].
C137.20 For the cleanliness of the Mosque you are allowed to clean out the nest of a pigeon or bat etc [Durr- e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C137.21 It is better to pray Salaah in the village or local Mosque than to pray in the Jamia (Central) Mosque even if the Jamaat is small, in fact if there is no Jamaat performed in the local Mosque then perform Adhan and pray Salaah alone as this is better than to pray in the Jamia Mosque [Sagiri etc.].

C138.0 WITR SALAAH

C138.1 The Salaah of Witr is Wajib and if for some reason it has not been prayed during it's allocated time then it's Qadha is also Wajib [Alamgiri, Hidaya]. Witr Salaah contains three Rakaat to be performed with one Salaam, the same as the Maghrib Salaah. The first Qaidah is Wajib, meaning after two Rakaats you must sit down and only pray Attahiyat and then stand back up and pray Alhamdu and a Surah and then lift both hands upto the ear lobes and whilst saying Allaho Akbar fold them again and pray 'Dua-e-Kunoot'. After praying Dua-e-Kunoot perform Ruku and finish the Salaah as normal.
C138.2 It is Wajib to pray Dua-e-Kunoot and it is not Wajib to pray any specific Dua, however, it is better to pray those Duas that have been mentioned in the Hadiths. The most common one is as follows;
"Allahumma Inna Nasta 'inuka Wa Nastaghfiruka Wa Nu'Minu Bika Wana Tawwakkalu 'Alaika Wanuthni 'Alaikal Khair Wa Nashkuruka Walaa Nakfuruka Wa Nakhlau Wanatruku Mayyaf Jhuruka Allahumma iyyakana'budu Walaka Nusalli Wanasjudu Wa ilaka Nas'aa Wanahfidu Wanarju Rahamataka Wa Nakhsha 'Adhaabaka inna 'Adhaabaka Bil Kuffari Mulhiq".
C138.3 Those who cannot pray Dua-e-Kunoot, should pray this;
"Rabbana Aatina Fiddunya Hasanataw Wafil Aakhirati Hasanataw Wa Qina 'Adhaaban Naar" and those who cannot pray this should pray "Allahummagh Firli" three times [Alamgiri].
C138.4 Dua-e-Kunoot should always be prayed quietly, whether it be the Imaam or a Muqtadee or a Munfarid, whether it be the month of Ramadan or other days, whether it be Ada or Qadha [Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C138.5 Except for Witr, do not pray Dua-e-Kunoot in any other Salaah. However, if there is a serious difficulty or incident then you can pray it in Fajr also. The way to pray it in Fajr is the same as Witr except for it is done in the second Rakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
C138.6 If you forget to sit in the first Qaidah then you are not allowed to sit back down, but you should continue and perform Sajda-e-Sahoo at the end. If you forget to pray Kunoot and you go into the Ruku then do not pray it in the Ruku nor return to the Qayam position, but continue your Salaah as normal and perform Sajda-e-Sahoo at the end and the Salaah will count.
C138.7 In Witr the Qiraayat is obligatory in all three Rakats and to join a Surah after Alhamdu is Wajib.
C138.8 It is better if you pray 'Sabbihismi Rabbikal Aalaa' or 'Inna Anzalna' in the first Rakat and in the second 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the third 'Qul Huwallah Ho Ahad' and sometimes pray other Surahs.
C138.9 The Salaah of Witr cannot be prayed whilst sitting down or on a cavalcade (item used for travelling e.g. horse, car, camel etc.) without a real reason [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C138.10 For a Sahib-e-Tarteeb who is aware that he has not yet prayed the Salaah of Witr and during the Fajr time he prayed the Fajr Salaah and there is enough time for him to pray the Qadha of Witr and then he must pray the Fajr Salaah again, then his first Fajr will not count whether it be during the beginning time, middle or near the end time of Fajr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

C139.0 When can Witr be prayed with Jamaat?
C139.1 The Witr Salaah can only be prayed with Jamaat during the month of Ramadan, except for Ramadan it is Makrooh to pray with Jamaat [Hidaya etc.]. In fact it is Mustahhab to pray it with Jamaat in this great month of Ramadan.
C139.2 If a person has not prayed the Fardh of 'Isha with Jamaat, then he should also pray the Witr alone, even if he has prayed the Tarawih with Jamaat.

C140.0 SUNNAHS AND NAFLS

C140.1 Rules of Sunnah-e-Maukida and Ghair Maukida
C140.2 There are many Sunnahs which are regarded as Maukida, whereby it has been regarded as important in Shariah and to miss it even once without reason is worth reprimanding, and to make a habit of missing them would mean being a wrongdoer (Fasiq) who's giving oath would not be counted and is worthy of hell. To miss it is close to Haram and those who miss it have a risk of not being interceded on the day of judgement.
C140.3 Sunnah-e-Maukida is sometimes also referred to as Sunun-e-Hidaya. Many Sunnahs are Ghair Maukida and are sometimes referred to as Sunun-e-Zawa'id and it's importance has not been defined in Shariah and sometimes is quoted as Mustahhab.
C140.4 Nafl are those actions which by doing would gain reward and to miss carries no punishment and there is no harm in missing.

C141.0 Salaah which is Sunnah-e-Maukida
C141.1 The Sunnah-e-Maukida are these;
a) The first two Rakats of Fajr, before the Fardh Salaah
b) The first four Rakats of Dhuhr before the Fardh Salaah and the two Rakats of Dhuhr after the Fardh Salaah.
c) The two Rakats after the Fardh Rakats of Maghrib
d) The two Rakats of 'Isha after the Fardh Rakats.
e) The first four Rakats before Fardh of Ju'ma and the four Rakats after Fardh and it is better also to pray the two Rakats additionally after Fardh [Guniya, Hidaya].
C141.1 The most important Maukidah is the Sunnahs of Fajr, upto the extent that many Ulema regard them as Wajib. Therefore they cannot be prayed without reason whilst sitting or on a vehicle or moving car [Fatahul Qadir etc.].

C142.0 Rules of missing Sunnahs
C142.1 If the Fajr Salaah became Qadha and you prayed them before midday then also pray the Qadha for the Sunnahs otherwise don't. Except for Fajr if all other Sunnahs became Qadha, then there is no Qadha for them.
C142.2 If you missed the first Sunnahs of Dhuhr or Ju'ma and prayed the Fardh Rakats then if there is time pray the Sunnahs after and it is better to pray them after the normal Sunnahs that are prayed after the Fardh Salaah [Fatahul Qadir, Bahar].
C142.3 If the Sunnahs of Fajr are not prayed and the Fardh Salaah is prayed then do not pray them until after sunrise as Qadha as it is better to pray them after sunrise and it is not allowed to pray them in this situation before sunrise [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C142.3 It is Sunnah to pray in the Sunnahs of Fajr, in the first Rakat 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the second 'Qul Huwallaho Ahad'.

C143.0 When Nafl is allowed
C143.1 It is not allowed to start any Nafl or Sunnah once Jamaat has started. The only exception is the Sunnahs of Fajr and the rule is you must start them even if the Jamaat has started as long as you are aware that you can finish the Sunnahs and join the Jamaat even if it is in the last Qaidah. You must pray these Sunnahs separately away from the rows of Jamaat as to pray them in the same row as the Jamaat is not allowed.
C143.2 If you are aware that if you pray Nafl or Sunnah then you will miss the Jamaat, then it is not allowed to start the Nafl or Sunnah.

C144.0 Mustahhab Salaah
C144.1 Four Rakaat Salaah before 'Isha and 'Asr and four Rakats after 'Isha all with one Salaam is Mustahhab. It is also the case if you pray two Rakats after 'Isha then the Mustahhab will be fulfilled. It is also Mustahhab to pray four Rakats after Dhuhr. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who pray these will have the fire of hell made Haram for them.

C145.0 Salaatul Awaabeen
C145.1 After Maghrib, to pray six Rakats is Mustahhab and they are known as Salaatul Awaabeen. It is better to pray them in two, two Rakats [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C145.2 the Mustahhab of Dhuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha include the Sunnah-e-Maukida. For example if you pray four Rakats after Dhuhr Fardh then both the Sunnahs and the Mustahhab will be fulfilled and alternatively you can pray them both with one Salaam. Meaning perform Salaam after four Rakats and only the intention of Sunnah is sufficient, there is no need to define the Maukida and Mustahhab separately as they both will be fulfilled [Fatahul Qadir, Bahar].
C145.3 Qiraayat is obligatory in all the Rakats of Nafl and Sunnah.
C145.4 To intentionally start a Sunnah or Nafl Salaah will make it Wajib, meaning if you break it then to repeat or perform it's Qadha is Wajib.
C145.5 Nafl Salaah can be prayed without reason whilst sitting down, however, to pray it standing up carries double reward [Hidaya].
C145.6 If you are praying Nafl sitting down then sit as if you are sat in Qaidah except for when you are praying Qiraayat have your arms folded below the navel just as you have them when stood up [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C145.7 The two Rakats Nafl that are prayed after Witr, it is better to pray 'Iza Zul Jilatul Ardo' in the first Rakat and 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' in the second Rakat.

C146.0 Where is it better to pray Sunnah and Nafl ?
C146.1 It is better to pray the Sunnah and Nafl in the home [Hidaya etc.].
C146.2 Do not talk between the Sunnah and Fardh Salaah as the reward is reduced [Fatahul Qadir], the same rule applies to any action which is forbidden as soon as Takbeer-e-Tahrima is said (i.e. eat, drink, talk etc.) [Tanweer, Bahar].

C147.0 Salaah of Tahajjud

After praying 'Isha and after sleeping, the time that you wake up is the time of Tahajjud, however, it is better to pray in the last third of the night. Tahujjud is Sunnah and is prayed without the intention of Sunnah and is at least two Rakats and most is eight Rakats [Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri].
C147.1 In a Nafl Salaah during the day it is Makrooh to pray it more that four Rakats without performing Salaam and during the night it is Makrooh to pray it more than eight Rakats without performing salaam. Whether it is be day or night it is better to perform Salaam at the maximum of four Rakats [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C147.2 If you have made the intention of praying more than two Rakats of Nafl then you must perform Qaidah between every two Rakats. Notice: To pray more than two Rakats of Nafl in one Salaam will make the rules rather difficult to observe and that is why it is better to pray two, two Rakats.

C148.0 Salaah Ishraq
This Salaah is also Sunnah. After praying Fajr keep on praying the Durood . After the sun has risen slightly meaning at least twenty minutes from the start of sunrise has passed, then pray two Rakats.

C149.0 Salaah Chaast
This is also Sunnah and there are at least two Rakats or at the most twelve Rakats, and it is better to pray all twelve. The time for this is when the sun has well risen upto the start of midday, however, it is better to pray it when the sun has quarter risen in the sky.

C150.0 Salaah Istikhara
It has been quoted in the Hadiths that when a person makes an intention for something then he should pray two Rakats Nafl. In the first Rakat after Alhamdu pray 'Qul Yaa Ayyuhal Kafiroon' and in the second Rakat after Alhamdu pray 'Qul Huwallaho Ahad' and then pray the following Dua and with Wudhu face the Qibla and go to sleep. At the beginning of the Dua and at the end pray Alhamdu and Durood . The Dua is as follows;
"Allahumma inni Astakhiruka Bi ilmika Wa Astakdiruka Bi Qudratika Wa As'aluka Min Fadlikal Azueemi Fa innaka Taqdiru Wala Aqdiru Wa Ta'lamu Walaa A'lamu Wa anta Allamul Ghuyub Allahumma In kunta Ta'lamu Anna Hazal Amra Khairulli Fi Deeni Wa Ma'aashi Wa Aaqibati Amri Wa Aajili Amri Wa'Aajilihi Faqdurhuli Wa Yasirrihuli Summa Baarikli Feehi Wa'inkunta Ta'lamu Anna Hazal Amra Sharruli Fi Deeni Wa ma'aashi Wa'Aaqibati Amri Wa Aajili Amri Wa Aajilihi Fa''Asrif'hu Anni Wa as'rifni Anhu Waqdur liyal Khaira Haiysu Kaana Summa Raddini Bihi"
At both 'Al Amra' mention your request. Just like in the first one say 'Haza Safara Khairuli' and in the second one say 'Haza Safara Sharruli' [Guniya].

C151.0 When should Istikhara be done ?
C151.1 There is no Istikhara for pious actions such as Hajj, Jihad etc. However, you can perform Istikhara to designate a fixed time for them [Guniya].
C151.2 It is better to perform Istakhara at least seven times and then see wherever your conscience is fixed that is what is best for you. Many pious Buzrukhs say that if you see whiteness or greenery in your dreams then it is good and if you see darkness or redness then it is a bad thing and you should stay away from it [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C152.0 Salaah-e-Haajat (Fulfilling Needs)
When someone has a need from Allah Ta'ala or requires something from a person or they are in some sort of difficulty, then carefully perform Wudhu and then pray two or four Rakats Nafl Salaah. In the first Rakat after Alhamdu pray 'Ayatul Kursi' three times. In the second Rakat after Alhamdu pray Qul Huwallaho Ahad once. In the third Rakat after Alhamdu pray 'Qul A'oozo Birabbil Falaq' once and in the fourth Rakat after Alhamdu pray 'Qul A'oozo Birabbin Naas' once. After Salaam pray the following three times; "Huwallahul Lazi Laa'ilaha illa Huwa Aalimul Ghaibi Wash'shahaadati Huwar Rahmanur Rahim" then three times pray "Subhanallahi WAlhamdu Lillahi Wa Laailaha illallaho Wallaho Akbar Walaa Hawla Walaa Quwwata illa Billah" then three times pray a Durood and then pray this Dua;
"La ilaha illallahul Hakeemul Kareem Subhanallahi Rabbil Arshil Azeem Alhamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen As'aluka Maujibaati Rahmatika Wa'azaai'ma Maghfiratika Wal Ghanimati Min Kulli Birriw Wassalamata Min Kulli Ismin Laatada' Li Zamban illa Ghafaratahu Walaa Hamman illa Farrajtahu Walaa Haajatan Hiya Laka Rizan illa Qafaytuhi Yaa Ar'hamarraahimin"

C153.0 Salaah of Tarawih
Tarawih is the twenty Rakat Salaah that is Sunnah-e-Maukida and is prayed in the month of Ramadan after the Fardh Salaah of 'Isha every night.
C153.1 The time of Tarawih is after praying the Fardh of 'Isha until the beginning of the break of dawn [Hidaya]. In Tarawih the Jamaat is Sunnah-e-Kifayaa, meaning if all the people of the Mosque missed it then they would all be responsible for the sin and if one person prayed at home alone then he has not committed a sin [Hidaya, Qazi Khan]. C153.2 It is Mustahhab to delay it until one third of the night has passed and if you wait until half the night has passed then there is no harm [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C153.3 Just as the Tarawih is Sunnah-e-Maukida for men, in the same way it is Sunnah-e-Maukida for women and they are not allowed to miss it [Qazi Khan].
C153.4 The twenty Rakats of Tarawih are to be prayed in two, two Rakats i.e. performing salaam after every two Rakats and therefore in total ten salaams. After every four Rakats it is Mustahhab to rest for the duration it took to pray the four Rakats, this rest is called Tarwih [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
C153.5 After the Tarawih has finished the fifth Tarwih is also Mustahhab. If the fifth Tarwih is a burden on people then do not do it [Alamgiri, etc.].
C153.6 There is flexibility in Tarwih, whether you remain quiet or you can pray some Tasbeeh, Qur'an, Durood or Dua and if he wished he can pray Nafl alone, but to do this with Jamaat is Makrooh [Qazi Khan].
C153.7 Those who have not prayed the Fardh of 'Isha cannot pray the Tarawih nor Witr until he prays the Fardh.
C153.8 Those who prayed the Fardh of 'Isha alone can pray the Tarawih with Jamaat but he must pray the Witr alone [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C153.9 If you have prayed the 'Isha Fardh with Jamaat and then prayed the Tarawih alone, he can join the Jamaat for Witr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C153.10 If you have some Rakats of Tarawih left and the Imam has stood up for Witr then it is better to pray the Witr with Jamaat as long as you have prayed 'Isha Fardh with Jamaat and then you can pray the remaining Rakats of Tarawih. It is also allowed to complete your Rakats of Tarawih and then pray Witr alone [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C153.11 If people have prayed the Tarawih and now they want to pray it again then they can pray it alone but it is not allowed to pray it with Jamaat again [Alamgiri]. If one Imam prays Tarawih in two mosques and if he prays the full Tarawih in both mosques then this is not allowed. If the Muqtadee prays the Tarawih in full in both mosques then there is no problem, however, he is not allowed to pray Witr again if he has already prayed in the first mosque [Alamgiri].
C153.12 It is better to pray the Tarawih with Jamaat in the mosque. If the Tarawih is prayed in a house with Jamaat then you will not get the sin of missing Jamaat as it will still be counted but the reward will be less than praying in the mosque [Alamgiri].
C153.13 The Tarawih prayed behind a child will not count for any adults who prayed behind the child [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C153.14 In the whole month of Ramadan to finish the Qur'an once is Sunnah-e-Maukidah and to finish it twice is virtuous and to finish it three times is a good thing. You should not miss this opportunity just because people are idle [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C153.15 To give a Hafiz a salary for praying the Tarawih is not allowed and the giver and taker are both sinners. A salary is not just a fixing of the fee such as I will take this much for praying the Tarawih or I will give you so much for praying the Tarawih, but if a Hafiz believes he will pray at a certain place he will get so much then this is also not allowed. If the people say we will not give you anything or the Hafiz says I will not take anything and then the public decide to give the Hafiz a gift or some money as a gesture to thank him for his efforts then there is no problem with this [Bahar-e- Shariah].

C154.0 Shabinah
Shabinah meaning to finish the whole Qur'an in one night in Tarawih. During today's era where a Hafiz prays the Qur'an at great speed that the words cannot be understood. Never mind praying the words where the pronunciation is done correctly the listeners are also in a state where some are sat down, some are lying down, some are even sleeping and some perform the Takbeer-e-Tahrimah when the Imam goes into the Ruku and then they are doing this very quickly, in all these situations the Shabinah is not allowed. If the Hafiz prays speedily to pose off then this is Haram and is a sinner.

C155.0 SALAAH FOR THE SICK

If a person due to illness cannot stand and pray Salaah then they should sit and pray Salaah. Whilst seated he should perform Ruku by leaning far forward and pray 'Subhana Rabbial Azueem' and then sit back up straight and then go into Sajda as normal. If he is not able to pray Salaah whilst being seated then he should lay down and pray. The method is to lay down flat and point the feet towards Qibla and keep the knees up and keep a pillow underneath the head so that the face is pointing towards Qibla and the head is higher than the rest of the body. To perform Ruku and Sajda by actions, for the Sajda lean the head completely forward and for the Ruku lean the head slightly forward. In the same way Salaah can also be prayed lying on your left or right side.

C156.0 When can an ill person miss Salaah?
C156.1 When an ill person cannot even move his head then the Salaah is forgiven and there is no need to use the eyes to perform the actions or eyebrows or to pray with an intention only in the heart. If six Salaah pass like this then there is no need to perform Qadha as this is also forgiven and there is no need for Fidya (monetary compensation). If the time like this is less than six Salaah then Qadha is obligatory even if the health is only a little better that the person can now move his head to perform the actions [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
C156.2 If an ill person is in a state whereby he cannot keep count of the Rakats and Rukus or Sajdas then there is no need for him to perform Salaah on time [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C156.3 To stand in all Fardh Salaah, Witr, Eid Salaah and the Sunnahs of Fajr is obligatory and if Salaah is prayed whilst sitting down without genuine reason then the Salaah will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C156.4 Because the Qayam is Fardh therefore without a genuine religiously recognised reason it cannot be missed, otherwise the Salaah will not count. Upto the extent that if you can lean on a stick, servant or wall then it is Fardh to do this and if you can only stand for a small amount of time like whilst saying Allaho Akbar in Takbeer-e-Tahrimah then it is Fardh to start the Salaah whilst standing and then sit down afterwards otherwise the Salaah will not count. If you have a slight headache or flu or a cold or a small wound where people can walk about, is in no way a reason to pray the Salaah whilst being seated and if you have done so then it has not counted and you must pray Qadha for them [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C156.5 If a person leaks drops of urine or blood if he stands and doesn't if he sits then it is Fardh for him to pray whilst seated as long as there is no other way of stopping his illness.
C156.6 A person is so weak that if he goes to the mosque to pray the Salaah with Jamaat then he will have to sit down and pray Salaah, but if he remains at home then he can pray the Salaah standing, then it is Fardh for him to pray the Salaah at home with Jamaat if possible otherwise alone [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C156.7 If an ill person prays whilst standing then he cannot pray the Qur'an at all and if he prays whilst seated he can pray the Qur'an, then it is Fardh for him to pray whilst sitting down and if he can pray a little bit of the Qur'an whilst standing then it is Fardh to pray as much as he can whilst standing and then the remainder whilst seated [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C156.8 If a blanket is put underneath the ill person praying Salaah and it has become impure but if you were to change it, it will become impure again then continue to pray the Salaah on the original blanket and if the blanket is changed then the new blanket will not become as impure as quickly but by changing the blanket it will cause great distress to the ill person then do not change it [Alamgiri, Durr-e- Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C156.9 If a person is drowning and he can gain support from a stick then it is Fardh for him to pray the Salaah as long as Amar-e-Kasir is not performed and if he does not pray and he survives then he must perform Qadha [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

C157.0 QADHA SALAAH


To make a Salaah Qadha without genuine Shariah reason is a big sin and to pray the Salaah is Fardh and is necessary to perform repentance with sincerity. By the use of repentance or having the Hajj accepted will eradicate the sin for delaying the Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C157.1 Repentance is only correct when the Qadha is prayed and if you perform repentance but continue not to pray the Qadha or continue committing the sin then this is not repentance [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. It is quoted in the Hadith that a person who performs Tauba (repentance) but continues performing that sin then he has not performed repentance but is playing a joke with Allah.

C158.0 Description of Qadha
C158.1 Whatever a servant has been ordered, then to perform that act on time is known as Ada, and if the time passes then it is known as Qadha.
C158.2 If you perform Tahrima within the time then the Salaah is not Qadha but it is Ada, however, the exception to this rule is for the Salaah of Fajr, Ju'ma or Eid Salaah whereby the final salaam has to be performed before the time has ended [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C158.3 If a Salaah becomes Qadha due to sleeping or by forgetting then to pray the Qadha is Fardh but the sin for Qadha does not apply, however once awake or remembering and as long as the time is not Makrooh then you must pray it immediately and to delay will be a Makrooh [Alamgiri].
C158.4 The Qadha of Fardh Salaah is Fardh, the Qadha of Wajib is Wajib and the Qadha of Sunnah is Sunnah for those Sunnahs that carry a Qadha such as the Sunnahs of Fajr when the Fardh has also been missed and the first Sunnahs of Dhuhr when the Fardh has been prayed and the time of Dhuhr has not finished [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C159.0 Time of Qadha

C159.1 There is no fixed time for praying Qadha as whenever it is prayed the duty will be fulfilled except for sunrise, just before sunset and exact midday, as no Salaah is allowed during these times [Alamgiri].
C159.2 Whichever Salaah has been missed has to be prayed like that, for example, if a four Rakat Salaah has been missed whilst on a journey then only two Rakats will be prayed when praying it's Qadha even if you are praying it back at home and if a four Rakat Salaah was made Qadha at home then if you pray it on a journey you will still have to pray four Rakats. If there is a problem when praying Qadha then you are allowed to accommodate for that meaning, if when the Salaah was made Qadha you were allowed to stand and pray and now you are unable to stand and pray and therefore have to sit and pray the Salaah then you are allowed to do this and when you get better there is no need to repeat this Qadha [Alamgiri].

C160.0 Which Qadha Salaah is forgiven
C160.1 If a person is so ill that they cannot pray Salaah even by actions and if this situation remains for six Salaah then the Qadha Salaah is not Wajib [Alamgiri].
C160.2 If a mental person has missed Salaah during his illness and it has been for a period of more than six Salaah continuously then there is no need to perform Qadha [Alamgiri].
C160.3 If there is enough time to pray both Qadha and Ada in short then you can do this and if by expanding the praying then there is not enough time to pray both Salaah then the routine (Tarteeb) is still Fardh and if by missing all allowed things but not Wajibs or Fardh in Salaah you can pray both, then this should be done if possible [Alamgiri].

C161.0 ROUTINE IS NECESSARY IN QADHA SALAAH

C161.1 For a Sahib-e-Tarteeb, meaning for those who have less than six Salaah in total of Qadha to pray, then when remembering and there being enough time to pray the Qadha, he prays his Ada instead then this Salaah will not count. This means he will still have to pray the Ada Salaah again. If he continued praying the Ada Salaah and missed the Qadha until he has prayed the sixth Salaah and then all the Salaah will be correct as he will no longer be Sahib-e-Tarteeb any more and if in between he prays one Qadha, then all the Ada will not count.
C161.2 Tarteeb meaning routine is necessary for the missed Salaah and the Ada Salaah as long as there are less than six missed Salaah and hence first the Qadha should be prayed then the Ada. For example if today someone's Fajr, Dhuhr, 'Asr and Maghrib became Qadha then he cannot pray the 'Isha Salaah until he has prayed the Qadha for the four Salaah in sequence first.
C161.3 If there isn't enough time to pray the Ada and all the Qadha Salaah then pray as many Qadha and the Ada as possible and for the rest, Tarteeb can be missed, for example, if both the Fardh of 'Isha and Witr became Qadha and in Fajr you only had time to pray five Rakats then you pray three Rakats of Witr and two of Fajr, and if you only had time for six Rakats then pray the Qadha of Fardh 'Isha and pray two Rakats Fardh of Fajr [Shareh Wiqaya].
C161.4 If six Salaah became Qadha and as soon as the time for the sixth is finished there is no longer a need for Tarteeb and now regardless of remembering and having time if you pray the Ada Salaah it will count. Whether the Qadha have occurred all in one go meaning six Salaah together or by six in a few days, for example, your Fajr became Qadha for six days and you continued praying Ada and totally forgot about the Qadha then the same rule applies and you are no longer a Sahib-e-Tarteeb [Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C161.5 As soon as six Salaah became Qadha and the time for the sixth Salaah has gone then Tarteeb is no longer Fardh anymore, whether all the missed Salaah are old or some are recent and some are old , meaning if you missed a month's Salaah and then started praying again and again missed a couple you are still no longer a Sahib-e-Tarteeb as you have more than six Qadha in total to pray [Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C161.6 When due to having more than six Qadha the Tarteeb is no longer necessary then if some of the Qadha is prayed and there are less than six Qadha remaining in total then you will still no longer be Sahib-e-Tarteeb until all the Qadha is prayed, and when this is the case you will become Sahib-e- Tarteeb again [Shareh Wafaya, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C161.7 Just as six or more Qadha Salaah clears the necessity for routine for the Ada and Qadha Salaah, there is also no need for routine for the Qadha Salaah, meaning that the remanding Qadha can be prayed in whichever sequence deemed suitable, for example, if someone missed a full month's Salaah and then he prayed them first the thirty Fardh of Fajr then the thirty Salaah of Dhuhr etc. and this would also be acceptable and the Salaah will count [Alamgiri]. Whoever has the responsibility of praying Qadha Salaah although it is necessary for them to be prayed as soon as possible they can be delayed due to responsibilities towards the family, or work etc. and whenever he gains some free time he should pray the Qadha until they are all complete [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C161.8 Qadha Salaah is more important than the Nafl Salaah and therefore when you pray the Nafl instead you should pray any Qadha you may have left, however, do not replace the Tarawih or the twelve Sunnah-e-Maukidah (in the day).
C161.9 For those who have the responsibility of many years Qadha and they cannot remember exactly how many then they should make the intention that "I am praying the first Qadha of Fajr or Dhuhr or 'Asr, that is due from me" and complete all the Qadha like this until they are certain that they have none left to perform.

C162.0 Age of becoming an Adult
C162.1 Whether a person is male or female, once they reach the age of adolescence all Salaah and Siyam etc. will become obligatory for them. A female's age is at least nine and at the most fifteen and a male's age is a minimum of twelve and a maximum of fifteen. It is necessary to believe a fifteen year old as an adult according to Shariah whether or not they show signs of adulthood.

C163.0 To be illiterate is not an excuse
C163.1 It is obligatory for all adult Muslims to learn the Fardh rules of Shariah and being illiterate or a female is not an excuse. If you are not aware of your obligations and necessities according to Islam then you will be a sinner and caught in the grounds of punishment.

C164.0 Compensation for Salaah (Fidya)
C164.1 If a person's Salaah has become Qadha and he dies then if he has left an order in his will to pay Fidya for his Qadha Salaah and he has left some money or goods, then Fidya should be paid from one third of the money or goods left by him and one half Sa'a (approx. 4lb 8oz) of wheat or one Sa'a (approx. 9lb) of Sadqa is to be given to the poor for every Fardh or Wajib missed. If the dying person has not left any goods then the next of kin can give to the poor from his own goods. The way to do this is the next of kin to give half a Sa'a to a pauper and he would become the owner, and the pauper would now as the owner give the goods back to the next of kin as a gift and now the next of kin would become the owner and to continue this process until all the Salaah have been counted for. If the person who has died has left some goods but is not enough then the same process should be applied. If the person who has died has not left an order in his will to give Fidya and the next of kin wishes to do so then they can.
C164.2 For whose Salaah there is fault or improper then they should repeat the whole lot as this is a good thing and if there is no fault then they shouldn't but if they would like to do so then they pray them after Fajr or 'Asr and should pray all the Rakats in full (with a Surah attached) and for Witr after Kunoot they should perform Qaidah and then join another Rakat to make it a total of four [Alamgiri].

C165.0 Qadha-e-Umri does not exist
C165.1 Many people on the night of Shabb-e-Qadr or at the end of Ramadan pray two Rakats Salaah and believe that all their Qadha for a lifetime has been fulfilled, this is totally wrong and incorrect and is not possible.

C166.0 SALAAH FOR A TRAVELLER


According to Shariah a traveller is a person who leaves his village or area with an intention of travelling for a distance of three days.
C166.1 A day means the shortest day in the year and the whole day does not mean a distance of a person travelling from in the morning to night but the major part of the day. For example, started walking from the break of dawn to the afternoon and then repeated the same for the next two days, then the total distance is regarded as travelling distance according to Shariah. Walking from dawn to the afternoon does not mean continuous walking, but resting as and when necessary and the speed is not too fast nor too slow. Walking on dry land means the same speed as a camel and a man walking, walking on rocks and rough ground is whatever speed necessary to walk and travelling on a boat is the speed when the wind is not too fast nor too still [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C166.2 On dry ground the measurement is taken as miles and the total amount of miles are fifty seven and a half {57.5} (we have not mentioned any old measurements used) [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar-e- Shariah].

C167.0 Distance of Travel and the application of 'Asr
C167.1 If the distance of three days is covered in two days or less then it is still regarded as a journey and a distance of less than three days is covered in more than three days then it is still not regarded as a journey [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
C167.2 A clear route on dry round for a distance of 57.5 miles is covered in a car or train in less than an hour but according to Shariah it is still regarded as a journey and the rules of 'Asr and other journey rules will apply [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C167.3 Only an intention of travelling is not sufficient but they have to leave the area, if it is a city then to leave the city, if it is a town to leave the town and if it is a city then not only the city but it's associated landmarks then the journey has begun [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C167.4 If the station is outside the area then once reaching the station the journey will begin as long the intention to travel for a 'journey' has been made.
C167.5 It is also necessary for a traveller to make the intention of a distance of more than three days (57.5 miles) from where he starts and if he makes the intention to travel for a distance of two days and then from there he made the intention of travelling another two days distance he will not be a traveller even though like this he may travel the whole world [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C167.6 It is also necessary for a journey to make the intention of travelling for a continuous distance of three days meaning if a person made the intention of travelling two days and stopping and did some work and then travelled for another day this would not be counted as a journey [Fatawa-e-Razvia, Bahar- e-Shariah].

C168.0 ORDERS FOR A TRAVELLER


C168.1 The meaning of 'Asr
It is Wajib for a traveller to perform 'Asr for Salaah, meaning for a four Rakat Fardh he should pray two Rakats as for the traveller this is the full Salaah.
C168.2 There is no 'Asr for Maghrib and Fajr and should be prayed in full. Only for the Fardh Salaah of Dhuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha there is 'Asr.
C168.3 If a traveller does not perform 'Asr then he will be a sinner.

C169.0 No 'Asr for Sunnahs
C169.1 There is no 'Asr in Sunnah and therefore should be prayed in full. In fact due to fear or if in a hurry you can miss the Sunnahs but you cannot pray them as 'Asr [Alamgiri].
C169.2 If a traveller instead of praying 'Asr he prays the full four Rakats then if he has performed Qaidah in the second Rakat, then his Salaah will count and if he does not perform Qaidah in the second Rakat then his Salaah will be void.
C169.3 A person is a traveller until he returns to his area or makes the intention of staying at the destination for more than fifteen days and this applies when he has travelled for a distance of three days. If he has not yet travelled for a distance of three days and decides to return, he is no longer a traveller even though he might be in a jungle [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].

C170.0 Conditions of intention when reaching destination
For the intention of reaching destination to be correct there are six conditions, meaning when all six conditions have been fulfilled then he will have finished his full journey, otherwise not.
1. When you stop walking, if you make the intention whilst walking then you haven't finished your journey.
2. Wherever you have stopped is fit for stopping, meaning a jungle or boat in a river or ship at sea does not end the journey.
3. The intention is to stay for fifteen days, if the intention is for less then you will not have finished your journey.
4. This intention is for one place, if it is for two separate places, i.e. to stay in one place for ten days and the other for five days then you will not have finished your journey.
5. Your intention is made by yourself and not under the influence of another person who has authority over you and you have total control of your own intention.
6. A traveller is walking and he has not yet reached his destination and makes the intention then he is still a traveller and if he has reached his destination and makes the intention then he has finished his journey even though he may not have found a place to stay. [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C170.2 Those who are under the control of someone else then their intention will count and those they are being controlled by, their intention will count. A husband's intention will count a wife's won't. A master's intention will count a slave's intention will not. An officer of the army's intention will count, the soldier's intention will not. Therefore, if the husband made the intention of finishing the journey and the wife did not then both will have finished the journey because the husband's intention will count and the wife's intention will not and in the same way if the wife made the intention of finishing the journey and the husband did not then they will not have finished the journey, and the same rule applies to all those who are dependent on someone else.

C171.0 When can a traveller and non traveller follow each other
C171.1 A non traveller can follow a traveller and when the Imam (who is the traveller) performs Salaam after two Rakats the non traveller who is the Muqtadee will stand up and finish his two remaining Rakats but in Qayam he must not pray anything and remain stood for the length of time it takes to pray Surah Fatiha and then go into Ruku and finish his Salaah off as normal [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
C171.2 If the Imam is a traveller then he should state that he is a traveller and when he performs Salaam he should say 'all of you finish your Salaah, as I am a traveller'.
C171.3 If a traveller followed a non traveller meaning the non traveller was the Imam then for the traveller the first Qaidah will become Wajib and will no longer be Fardh and therefore if the Imam did not perform the first Qaidah then the Salaah will not become void and if the traveller was Imam then the first Qaidah will be Fardh for the non traveller Muqtadees [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C171.4 Once a traveller reaches his proper home town then he has finished his journey regardless of making an intention or not.

C172.0 Definition of proper home town
C172.1 Watn-e-Asli (proper town) is that place where you were born or where people from your family live or you have settled there and the intention is not to move from there. Watn-e-Iqamat (Place of stay) is that place where a traveller has made the intention of staying for fifteen or more days [Alamgiri, Bahar].
C172.2 One Watn-e-Iqamat makes another Watn-e-Iqamat void, meaning you stayed with the intention in one place for more than fifteen days and then went to another place with the intention to stay there for fifteen or more days then the first place is no longer a Watn-e-Iqamat even if the distance between the two places is not as long as the distance of travel [Alamgiri, Bahar].
C172.3 If you reached from Watn-e-Iqamat to the Watn-e-Asli or travelled from Watn-e-Iqamat for a distance of travel (57.5 miles) then the Watn-e-Iqamat is no longer Watn-e-Iqamat, meaning if you returned to that place and decided to stay less than fifteen days then you will remain a traveller [Alamgiri].
C172.4 If a traveller gets married and even though his intention is not to stay there for fifteen days he is no longer a traveller and if a person has two wives then once he reaches their home in two different places he is not a traveller.
C172.5 A woman marries and then goes to live at her husband's place and lives there permanently then her own home is no longer Watn-e-Asli, meaning if her husband's home is a distance of three days from her parent's home and she does not intend to stay there for fifteen days or more then she must pray 'Asr Salaah, and if she has not left her parent's home permanently then when she reaches her parent's home her journey has finished and she must pray the full Salaah [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C173.0 A Woman cannot travel without a Mahrum

C173.1 It is not allowed for a woman to travel for a distance of three days or more without a Mahrum (her husband or adult relative with whom her marriage is permanently forbidden, e.g. father, brother etc.). In fact she cannot travel for a distance of one day with a child or a person with less intelligence than average without being assisted by her husband or adult Mahrum [Alamgiri, Bahar etc.], it is necessary that the Mahrum is not a big wrongdoer or a person who has gained disrespect [Bahar-e- Shariah].

C174.0 PRAYING SALAAH ON A CONVEYANCE

Whether a person is a traveller due to religion or due to worldly affairs once he leaves the outskirts of his town he can pray Nafl Salaah on his conveyance (vehicle of travel e.g. car, horse, camel etc.) whilst seated and he can perform the Salaah whilst seated and perform the Ruku by action and the Sajda by bending slightly more than the Ruku. Do not place your head on an ornament to perform Sajda or put something on it to perform Sajda as this is not allowed and whichever way the conveyance is going, keep your face pointing that way as to point it in another direction is not allowed even for the Takbeer-e-Tahrima it is not necessary for the face to be towards the Qibla [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C174.1 When praying Nafl on the conveyance and the conveyance was urged along by Amal-e-Qalil for example, if you used the heal of your foot or in one hand had a whip to urge the horse then this is allowed and to do this, however, without reason it is not allowed [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. The Fardh, Wajib, Sunnahs of Fajr, Salaah of Janaza, Salaah of Mannat (fulfilled wish), Sajda-e-Tilawat of those verses which have been prayed on the ground and those Nafl that had started on the ground and were broken cannot be prayed on a conveyance without reason and if there was a genuine reason then if possible the conveyance should be made to face the Qibla and if this is also not possible then try to perform the Salaah in any way possible [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

C175.0 Situations when Salaah can be prayed on a conveyance
C175.1 The reasons whereby the above conditions can be used to pray the Salaah on a conveyance are as follows;
" It is raining.
" It is muddy that if you got out and prayed then your face would be sunk in the mud or would be filled with mud and whatever cloth that is laid will become wet through with mud. If in this situation you do not have a conveyance then you should stand and pray Salaah with actions.
" Your companion will go off without you.
" The animal that is used to travel on is awkward and if you got off you have no-one to help you to get back on.
" You have an illness and it will get worse by coming off the conveyance.
" There is a fear or risk to your life, property or woman. [Durr-e-Mukhtar]

C176.0 Praying Salaah on a moving train
C176.1 Fardh, Wajib or Sunnah cannot be prayed on a moving train. Therefore when the train stops at a station pray these Salaah and if you see that the time is running out then pray the Salaah whichever way possible and then when you get the time repeat the Salaah [Bahar-e-Shariah]. IMPORTANT: A moving train should not be mixed with a moving boat or ship because if these are stopped then they wouldn't be stopped on ground and you can touch the ground from the train if you get off and you cannot do that on a ship. It is only allowed to pray Salaah on a ship when it is in mid water, if it is on the shore and you can get off then you must do this as praying on the ship in this situation is not allowed.

C177.0 Praying Salaah on a boat or ship.
C177.1 To pray Salaah on a moving ship or boat without cause when you can get off and pray it on the ground is not proper.
C177.2 If the boat has come up on the ground and is stable then there is no need to come off and you can pray on it.
C177.3 If the boat is tied on the edge and you have the chance of coming off onto the dry ground and praying then you should do this and if this is not possible then you should pray on the boat whilst standing.
C177.4 If the ship is anchored in the middle then you can pray sitting down if the winds are strong and there is a fear of falling, and if the winds are not that strong then you cannot pray whilst seated.
C177.5 Whilst praying Salaah on a ship to remain facing the Qibla is necessary and therefore if the ship moves you move so that you continue facing the Qibla and if it is happening fast then do not pray Salaah at that time, however, if time is running out then you must pray it [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C178.0 JUMA (FRIDAY PRAYER)

Juma is Fardh-e-Ain meaning obligatory on all individuals. It's obligation is more important than Dhuhr and those who reject it is a Kafir [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.]. It is quoted in the Hadith that those who miss three Jumas has thrown Islam behind them, and he is a hypocrite and is disassociated from Allah [Ibne-Khuzaima, Imam Shafaee].
C178.1 To pray Juma there are six conditions and if one of these is not fulfilled then the Juma will not count.

C179.0 Conditions of Juma
1. Town or outskirts of town
2. Leadership (King)
3. Time of Dhuhr
4. Khutba - (Speech)
5. Jamaat
6. Acceptance by majority.

C180.0 First Condition - Town or Outskirts of town
Town means a place which has many streets and a shopping centre or markets etc. It also has a district and villages belonging to that district. There must also be a judge or mayor belonging to it whom by his power or authority can ensure people go on trial and justice is upheld, even though he may himself be injustice or does not uphold the law. Outskirts of town mean them places which are constructed because of the town, such as a cemetery, stables for horses, barracks for the army and courts and these are on the outskirts of the town to give service to the town and Juma is allowed there. Therefore the Juma should be either prayed in the city or town or the outskirts of the town, it is not allowed in the villages [Guniya, Bahar-e-Shariah].
C180.1 For the town, it's judge or mayor needs to reside there and if he travels and goes elsewhere that place visited will not become a town and the Juma would not be allowed there [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e- Shariah].
C180.2 If a person who lives in a village goes to a town and intends to stay there that day then the Juma is Fardh for them.

C181.0 Multiple places in a town where Juma can be prayed
C181.1 Juma can be performed in a town in multiple locations and anywhere within the town, whether the town is large or small and the Juma can be in two Mosques or more [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. However, without reason Juma should not be prayed in many different locations because Juma is a sign of Islam and is a congregation of all Jamaats and if it is spread about in different Mosques then the same show does not remain as you would get in one large gathering and it is because of the sign of all Muslims uniting that it has been allowed and so the gathering should not be split and a Juma should not be done in every street or area unnecessarily.

C182.0 Who should lead the Juma?
There is a very important point that people have not been paying attention to and have been treating Juma like other normal Salaah and whoever wishes has started a new Juma and whoever wishes they have lead it, this is not allowed, because leading the Juma is the duty of the king of Islam or his deputies and wherever there is not Islamic rule then the highest qualified scholar who is from the correct faith of Ahl-e-Sunnah Wa Jamaat is the person who substitutes the Sultan of Islam and ensures that the rules of Islamic law are followed should lead the Juma, and without his permission the Juma cannot be performed. If this is not possible then the person who people choose as their Imam has to lead the Juma prayers. Also whilst the majority of people being present some of them cannot make a person an Imam or four people decide on an Imam, this type of Juma is not proven anywhere [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C183.0 Second Condition - King or leader
Leader means a Sultan of Islam or his deputy whom the Sultan has given authority to lead the Juma prayers. Even if the Sultan is a ferocious person or a good person he can lead the prayers. If a person has forced himself into power and according to Shariah he has no right of becoming an Imam, such as he is not a Qureshi or does not fulfil any other condition he can still call for Juma prayer [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].

C183.0 Third condition - Time
The time of Juma is the time of Dhuhr, meaning the Juma should be prayed in the time that Dhuhr is prayed and if in Juma Salaah you got upto praying Attahiyat and the time of 'Asr started then the Juma Salaah becomes void and you would have to pray the Qadha of Dhuhr.

C184.0 Fourth Condition - Khutba (Speech)
C184.1 The condition for the Khutba of Juma is that it is done within the time and is done before the Juma Salaah. It must be performed in front of such a Jamaat which is necessary for Juma and that is a minimum of three men except for the person performing the Khutba. It should be so loud that the people nearby can hear it and if this is not the case or the Khutba is prayed before midday or after the Salaah or prayed alone or prayed in front of women or children then in all these situations the Juma will not count.
C184.2 If between the Khutba and Salaah there is a big gap then that Khutba would not be sufficient [Durr-e- Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariah].

C185.0 What is known as a Khutba
C185.1 Khutba is the remembrance of Allah and therefore even if once 'Alhamdu Lillahi' or 'Subhanallahi' or 'La ila Ha illallah' is prayed, then the Fardh would be fulfilled, but to make the Khutba that short is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
C185.2 It is Sunnah to pray two Khutbas and they should not be very long and if they both together are longer than 'Tawal-e-Mufassal' then it is Makrooh especially in the winter [Guniya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

C186.0 Things that are Sunnah in the Khutba
The things that are Sunnah in the Khutba is ;
" The Khateeb (person praying the Khutba) to be clean and stood up.
" Before the Khutba the Khateeb to be sat down.
" The Khateeb to be stood on the Mimbar facing the audience and with his back towards the Qibla.
" The audience to be paying attention to the Imam.
" To pray ''Audhubillah' quietly before the Khutba.
" To pray with your own voice so loud that the people can hear.
" To start with 'Alhamdu'.
" To praise Allah Subhana Wa Ta'ala.
" To bear witness of Allah's monotheism and to bear witness the prophet-hood of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).
" To send the Prophet Durood.
" To pray at least one verse of the Qur'an.
" In the first Khutba to be words of guidance and advice and in the second Khutba to contain praise and witness and to repeat the Durood and to pray for other Muslims.
" Both Khutbas to be light.
" To sit between the two Khutbas for a length of three verses.
" It is Mustahhab to lower the voice for the second Khutba slightly less than the first one and to remember the great Sahhabis and Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Abbas Radi Allaho Ta'ala Anhum.

It is better to start the Second Khutba like this "Alhamdu Lillahi Nahmadaho Wa Nasta'eenuhu Wa Nastaghfiruhu Wanu'Minu Bihi Wanatawakkalu Alaihi Wa Na'uzubillahi Min Shururi Anfusina Wa Min Sayyi Aati A'malina Mayyahdihillahu Fala Mudillalah Wamayyudlillhu Falaa Haadiyalah Wanash Hadu An La ilaha illallahu Wahdahu La Sharika Lahu Wa Nash Hadu Anna Sayyadina Wa Maulana Muhammadan Abduhu Wa Rasooluh"
If a person is in front of the Imam then he should face the Imam and if he is either on his left or right side then he should turn towards the Imam. It is better to be close to the Imam, however, it is not allowed to cross other people's necks to get there. Although if the Imam has not yet stood up for the Khutba and there is space near the front then it is allowed to go there and if the Imam has already started the Khutba and you then enter the Mosque, then you should sit in the nearest space or corner available. You should sit whilst listening to the Khutba as you sit in Qaidah in Salaah [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Guniya and Bahar].
C186.1 To praise and exalt a king of Islam which he does not acquire is Haram, for example to call him 'the one who owns people's lives' etc. because this is a lie and is Haram [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C186.2 Not to pray a verse of the Qur'an in the Khutba or not to sit between two Khutbas or for the Khateeb to speak whist praying the Khutba is Makrooh. However, if the Khateeb promoted good or forbid evil then there is no harm [Alamgiri, Bahar].
C186.3 To pray the Khutba in another language except Arabic or to mix another language with Arabic is against the Sunnah and is not preferred. Also poetry should not be prayed in the Khutba even if it is in the Arabic language. If the a couple of verses of poetry is said which is about advice and is prayed sometimes then there is no harm [Bahar-e-Shariah].

C187.0 Fifth Condition - Jamaat
Except for the Imam there must be at least another three men, otherwise the Juma will not count [Hidaya, Shareh Wiqaya, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
C187.1 If there are three servants or three travellers or ill people or uneducated or dumb Muqtadees then the Juma will still count. If there are only women or children present then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C188.0 Sixth Condition - Acceptance of all
This means that the doors of the mosque are opened so that anyone wishing could attend the Juma, no-one must be stopped or prevented. If in a major Mosque (Jamia Mosque) when everyone gathers, the doors were locked behind then the Juma will not count [Alamgiri].
C188.1 If women are prevented from coming into the Mosque then it won't be against accepting all, as if they came there would be fear of trouble [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

C199.0 Wajibs of Juma
There are eleven aspects that make Juma Wajib and if even one of these were not fulfilled then it is not Fardh but even if he prayed the Juma it will count and in fact for an adult male who is sane it is better to pray the Juma and for a woman it is better to pray Dhuhr. The conditions are as follows;
1. To be resident in the town or city.
2. Juma is not obligatory on an ill person. The illness must be so bad that the person cannot go to the Mosque where Juma prayers are held or if he did go his illness would get worse or it would delay the illness from getting better [Guniya]. A very old person is treated in the same context as an ill person [Qazi Khan, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
If a person is caring after an ill person and is aware that if he goes to pray Juma the ill person will be under risk and no-one else is available to look after them the for the carer, then Juma is not Fardh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
3. To be free. Juma is not Fardh on a slave and his master can forbid him [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
He cannot forbid a worker or employee from going to pray Juma, however, if the Jamia Mosque is far away then he can dock some of his pay and the employee cannot appeal against it [Alamgiri].
4. Juma is Fardh on males, it is not Fardh on females.
5. To be an adult.
6. To be sane. Both these conditions are not specifically for Juma but for all worship to be Wajib you must be an adult and be sane.
7. To have sight. Juma is not Fardh on the blind, however, it is Fardh on the blind person who can walk around the streets without help or assistance and can reach the Mosque on his own accord [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
8. The person can walk and therefore is not handicapped. However, if he is lame but can walk to the Mosque, then Juma is Fardh on him.
9. Juma is not Fardh on an imprisoned person who is in Jail. However, it is Fardh for a person who has been imprisoned due to debt and is rich and therefore has the means to pay off the debt.
10. To have fear. If a person has the fear of a king or thief or an oppressor or is worried that he will be imprisoned because he does not have the means to pay off a debt, then Juma is not Fardh on them [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
11. If there is a fear of a storm or flood or snow or hurricane, meaning that it would cause you harm if you went out in this weather then Juma is not Fardh.

C199.1 The Imamat of Juma can be performed by those males who can be an Imam in other Salaah, even if Juma is not Fardh on them e.g. ill person, traveller, Slave etc. [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Qazi Khan, Fatahul Qadir], meaning when the Sultan of Islam or his deputy or a person whom he has given authority, when they become ill then can still lead the Juma prayers or the person whom the above three have given authority to a person who is a slave or an ill patient or a traveller then they can become an Imam even though Juma is not Fardh for them. If a person has been asked to become an Imam by the majority of the public and is worthy of being an Imam in other Salaah, can become Imam even though he may be a person for whom Juma is not Fardh, but if a person decides on his own accord to become Imam without authority then the Juma will not count.
C199.2 If Juma is Fardh on a person then it is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi to pray Dhuhr before the Juma prayers have been performed in the town.
C199.3 For an ill person or a traveller or a slave or for anyone for whom Juma is not Fardh then for these it is also Makrooh to pray Dhuhr Salaah with Jamaat in a town whether it be before Juma prayers or after. In the same way if a person missed the Juma prayers then he should pray the Dhuhr Salaah alone without Adhan or Iqamat, as Jamaat is also not allowed for him [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C199.4 The Ulema state that those Mosques where Juma is not held then they should be closed during Dhuhr time [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C199.5 In a village on Fridays the Dhuhr Salaah should be prayed with Adhan, Iqamat and Jamaat [Alamgiri, Bahar]. To go to Juma prayers early and perform Miswaak and to wear nice clean white clothes and to wear scent and use oil on your head and have your hair combed neatly is Mustahhab and to have a bath on Friday before Juma prayers is Sunnah [Alamgiri, Guniya etc.].

C200.0 Some more Rules of Khutba
As soon as the Imam stands up for the Khutba all Salaah and Zikr and any type of conversation is forbidden. The only exception is that a Sahib-e-Tarteeb can pray his Qadha Salaah. If a person is praying a Sunnah or Nafl Salaah then they should finish it quickly [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C200.1 Those things which are Haram in Salaah such as eating, drinking, performing Salaam or replying to a Salaam etc. are also Haram in Khutba, even giving good advice and forbidding evil is also forbidden, however, the person praying Khutba can give good advice and forbid evil. When the Khutba is prayed then all those who are present must listen and remain quiet as this is Fardh, and those people who are a distance away from the Imam and cannot hear must also remain quiet as this is Wajib on them. If you hear someone talking about something bad then you can indicate with your hand or head but to talk is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C200.2 In the state of Khutba you saw that a blind person is going to fall in a well or someone is going to get bitten by a scorpion then you can use your voice, however, if you can indicate to them then you must do this and hence talking will not be allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C200.3 If the Khateeb prayed for the Muslims then the people listening cannot lift their hands or say Ameen as this is not allowed. If they did this then they will have committed a sin. Whilst praying the Durood in Khutba for the Khateeb to look at his left and right side is Bid'at.
C200.4 If the Khateeb said the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)'s name then the people listening should pray the Durood in their hearts as it is not allowed to say it with their tongue and in the same way if they heard a Sahhabi's name to say Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhum with their tongue is not allowed and should be said in the heart [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
C200.5 Except for the Khutba of Juma to listen to other Khutbas is also Wajib such as Khutbas of Eids or Nikkah etc.

C201.0 When is it Wajib to prepare and rush for Khutba ?
C201.1 As soon as you hear the first Adhan (One for Khutba) to prepare and rush for Khutba is Wajib and to stop your business as this is also Wajib, upto the extent that if you were shopping in the street then to continue is not allowed and it is worse and a big sin to shop inside the Mosque. If you were eating and you heard the Adhan for Khutba and you were afraid that if you continued eating then you would miss the Juma, then stop eating and go to the Mosque for Juma. Go for Juma in a relaxed and respectable way [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C201.2 When the Khateeb stands on the Mimbar then an Adhan should be said in front of him. This does not mean in front of him inside the Mosque as the Ulema of Fiqh have said it is Makrooh to call the Adhan inside the Mosque, so it must be done outside the Mosque (Jamaat Hall) [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
C201.3 The second Adhan should also be called loudly as it is a call for all and if someone did not hear the first then they should attend for the Khutba when hearing the second.
C201.4 Once the Khutba has finished the Iqamat should be called straight away without delay. To talk about worldly activities between the Khutba and Jamaat is Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C201.5 The person that has prayed the Khutba should also lead the Salaah, not another. If another did lead the prayer then it will still count as long as he has been given the authority to lead.
C201.6 It is better to pray for Juma Salaah in the first Rakat the Surah-e-Juma and in the second Surah-e- Munafiqoon, or in the first 'Sabbihismi' and in the second 'Hal Ataaka', however, do not always pray this but change them sometimes.
C201.7 If you travelled on the day of Juma and was out of the city before midday then there is no harm, otherwise it is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. Notice. On the day of Juma the souls gather together, hence you should visit the cemetery on this day [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

C202.0 SALAAH OF EID

Eid (meaning Fitr and Eid ud Duha) Salaah is Wajib but not for all. It is only Wajib for those for whom Juma is Wajib and the conditions for it are the same as those Juma except in Juma the Khutba is Wajib and for Eid it is Sunnah. If the Khutba was not prayed for Juma then the Juma would not count and if it was not prayed for Eid then the Salaah would count but a bad act has been done. The other difference is that in Juma the Khuba is prayed before Salaah and in Eid it is prayed after. If the Khutba is prayed for Eid before the Salaah then a bad act has been done but the Salaah will count and there is no need to repeat the Khutba and there is no Adhan or Iqamat for Eid Salaah, the only thing that is allowed is to say 'Assalaatul Jamia' twice [Qazi, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C202.1 To miss the Eid Salaah without reason is mis-guidance and Bid'at [Bahar].
C202.2 To pray the Eid Salaah in a village is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

The following points are Mustahhab on Eid days;

1. To cut your hair
2. To cut your nails
3. To bathe
4. To perform Miswaak
5. To wear good clothes, if you have new then they should be worn, otherwise washed.
6. To wear a ring (which is allowable in Shariah)
7. To wear scent
8. To pray the morning prayer in the Mosque in your area
9. To go to the Eid place (Eid Gaah) early
10. To give Sadqah-e-Fitr before the Salaah
11. To walk to the Eid Gaah.
12. To return back from a different route.
13. To eat a few dates before going to Salaah. They should be either three, five, seven etc. but an odd number. If you do not have dates then eat anything sweet before Salaah and if you do not do this then there is no sin but not to eat anything before 'Isha, then there will be dissatisfaction [Radd-ul- Mohtar etc.].
14. To show happiness
15. To give Sadqah openly
16. To go to the Eid Gaah respectfully, relaxingly and with your sight lowered.
17. To congratulate each other.

All the above points are Mustahhab.
C202.3 You should not say the Takbeer in a loud voice on the way to the Eid Gaah.[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd- ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C202.4 There is no harm in going to the Eid Gaah on a conveyance but those who have the strength to walk then it is better to do so and there is no harm to return back on a conveyance [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
C202.5 The time of Eid Salaah starts once the Sun is at the height of a spear and the time remains until midday day. However, it is better to delay the Eid-ul-Fitr Salaah and to pray the Eid-ud-Doha early, and if the time reaches midday before performing Salaam then the Salaah will not count [Hidaya, Qazi Kahn, Durr-e-Mukhtar]. When referring to midday it means midday according to Shariah and which has been explained in the 'time' section

C203.0 Method of praying Eid Salaah
The method is to make intention for Eid-ul-Fitr or Eid-ud-Doha for two Rakats Wajib and then lift your hands up to your ears and say 'Allaho Akbar' and then fold them below the navel as normal.
Now pray 'Sana' and then say Allaho Akbar and lift your hands upto your ears and release them and again lift your hands and say Allaho Akbar and release them again and then lift your hands again and say Allaho Akbar and then fold them. Meaning fold your hands after the first and fourth Takbeer and the second and third Takbeers release your hands. The best way to remember is that if there is something to pray after the Takbeer then fold your hands and where there is nothing to pray release your hands and hang them on the side.
After folding your hands after the fourth Takbeer the Imam will quietly pray ''Audhubillah' and 'Bismillah' and then he will pray 'Alhamdu' and a Surah loudly and then go into Ruku and Sajda and complete one Rakat.
Then in the second Rakat the Imam will first pray the Alhamdu and a Surah then lift your hands to your ears and say Allaho Akbar and release them and do not fold them and repeat this twice more, therefore a total of three times and on the fourth time say Allaho Akbar and without lifting your hands go into Ruku.
This therefore means that in Eid Salaah there are six extra Takbeers, three before Qirayat and after Takbeer-e-Tahrima in the first Rakat and three after Qirayat in the second Rakat and before the Takbeer for Ruku.
Also in all the extra Takbeers you must lift your hands and between two Takbeers a gap of three Tasbeehs should be made and it is Mustahhab in the Eid Salaah to pray after Alhamdu, 'Surah Juma' in the first Rakat and 'Surah Munafiqoon' in the second or in the first pray 'Sabbih Ismi' and in the second 'Hal Ataaka' [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
After Salaah the Imam will pray two Khutbas and whatever aspects are Sunnah in the Juma Khutba they are also Sunnah in the Eid Khutba and whatever aspects are Makrooh in the Juma Khutba they are also Makrooh in the Eid Khutba. There are only two differences and they are that in Juma before the first Khutba it is Sunnah to sit down and here it is Sunnah not to sit down, and secondly it is Sunnah in this Khutba to pray Allaho Akbar nine times before the first Khutba and seven times before the second Khutba and fourteen times before standing down from the Mimbar and in the Juma Khutba it is not [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C203.1 If someone joins in the first Rakat after the Imam has prayed the Takbeers then they should say all the three extra Takbeers together even if the Imam has started the Qirayat [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
C203.2 If you caught the Imam in Ruku then first of all say the Takbeer-e-Tahrimah and then if you know that you can pray the three extra Takbeers before the Imam lifts his head from the Ruku then pray the three Takbeers and then join the Imam in Ruku and if you fear that if you stayed to pray the three Takbeers the Imam would lift his head from Ruku then go straight into Ruku and without lifting your hands pray the three Takbeers quietly in Ruku and whilst you were praying the three Takbeers the Imam lifted his head from Ruku then you should also lift your head and leave the remaining Takbeers as these no longer need to be prayed [Alamgiri etc.].
C203.3 If you joined in the second Rakat then pray the first Rakat's Takbeer when you stand to pray the missed Rakat [Alamgiri etc.].
C203.4 If you joined in after the Imam had come back up from Ruku then do not say the Takbeers at this stage but pray them when you pray the missed Rakat [Alamgiri etc.].
C203.5 If you joined the Salaah in the last Rakat just before the Imam performed Salaam then pray your both Rakats with Takbeers when you stand up [Alamgiri etc.].

C204.0 The Time of Salaah of Eid and Bakr Eid and duration
C204.1 If due to some reason the Salaah was not prayed on Eid day (for example, there was a storm or due to cloud the moon could not be seen and a witness gave a statement after the allowed time for Salaah or due to cloud the Eid Salaah carried over to Midday without the Imam realising) then the Salaah should be prayed the next day and if it cannot be prayed the next day then the Eid-u-Fitr Salaah cannot be prayed on the third day. Also, if the Salaah is prayed on the second day, then the time is the same as for the first day and that is from when the sun has risen upto midday (according to Shariah) and if the Salaah is missed on the first day without a genuine reason then it cannot be prayed on the second day [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C204.2 Eid-ud-Doha is the same in all aspects as Eid-ul-Fitr except for a few differences and that is that it is Mustahhab on Eid-ud-Doha that nothing should be eaten before the Khutba even if you are not going to perform Qurbani and if you do eat then there is no harm. Also to say the Takbeer loudly on the way to the Mosque and the Salaah for Eid-ud-Doha can be delayed unconditionally upto the twelfth (of Zil Hajj) if there was a reason, it cannot be prayed after the twelfth and to pray it after the tenth without reason is Makrooh [Qazi Khan, Alamgiri etc.].
C204.3 If you are going to perform Qurbani then it is Mustahhab that from the first to the tenth of Zil Hajj not to cut your hair or your nails [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
C204.4 After Salaah of Eid to perform handshake and embracing like other days to Muslims is a good thing [Washakhal Jeed, Bahar-e-Shariah].


C205.0 What is Takbeer Tashreeq

The Takbeer Tashreeq is called from the ninth of Zil Hajj from Fajr to the thirteenth of Zil Hajj 'Asr, after every Fardh Salaah that is prayed via main Jamaat and to call it once loudly is Wajib and three times is better. The Takbeer Tashreeq is as follows 'Allaho Akbar Allaho Akbar La ilaha illallah Wallaho Akbar Allaho Akbar Walillahil Hamd' [ Tanweerul Absar, Bahar].
C205.1 The Takbeer Tashreeq is Wajib as soon as the Salaam is performed, meaning until an act has not been performed which takes him away from Salaah such as if he broke his Wudhu deliberately or walked outside the Mosque then the Takbeer is void but if the Wudhu broke on it's own accord then you should still say the Takbeer [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

C206.0 For Whom is Takbeer Tashreeq Wajib and when is it Wajib ?
C206.1 Takbeer Tashreeq is Wajib upon those who live in the city or a person who has made the intention of staying in the city, whether it be a woman, a traveller or a person who resides in a village and if these people do not make the intention of staying in the city then the Takbeer is not Wajib upon them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
C206.2 Takbeer Tashreeq is also Wajib after the Juma Salaah but not after Nafl or Sunnahs, however, you should also say it after Eid Salaah [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

C207.0 SALAAH OF THE ECLIPSE

C207.1 Sun Eclipse
The Salaah of Sun Eclipse is Sunnah-e-Maukidah and the Salaah for a Moon Eclipse is Mustahhab. It is Mustahhab to pray the Sun Eclipse Salaah by Jamaat but it can be prayed alone. If it is prayed with Jamaat then all the conditions are the same as per Juma except for the Khutba. The same person leads this Salaah as the same for Juma and if they are not available then the Salaah should be prayed alone either in the home or Mosque [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
C207.2 Pray the eclipse Salaah when the eclipse is on the Sun and not after the eclipse has moved. If the eclipse has moved but it is still shadowing the Sun then you can still start the Salaah and whilst there is an eclipse and if a cloud covers it then still pray the Salaah [Johra Nera].
C207.3 If the eclipse occurs during a time where Salaah is not allowed then do not pray the Salaah and perform Dua and if the sun then sets, then finish the Dua and pray Maghrib Salaah [Johra, Radd-ul- Mohtar].
C207.4 The Salaah for Eclipse is prayed like a normal Nafl Salaah, that is two Rakats and in every Rakat one Ruku and two Sajdas just like other Salaah.
C207.5 There is no Adhan, Iqamat or praying loudly in the eclipse Salaah and perform Dua after the Salaah upto the time when the sky becomes clear. You can pray more than two Rakats but perform Salaam in either two or four Rakat intervals [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Fatahul Qadir].
C207.6 If people do not gather together then call them with these words "Assalaatul Jamia" [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
C207.7 It is better to pray the Jamaat for the Salaah in either the Eid place or the Jamia Mosque and if it's prayed elsewhere then there is no harm [Alamgiri].
C207.8 If you know them, then pray Surah Baqr and Aal-e-Imran or it's length size Surahs and in Ruku and Sajda also make them long and after Salaah perform a Dua until the eclipse is over. It is also allowed to delay the Salaah and extend the Dua. It does not matter whether the Imam when performing Dua is facing the Qibla or facing the audience and this actually better and all the Muqtadees should say Ameen and it is also all right for the Imam to lean when performing Dua on the Asa (stick) or wall but not climb the Mimbar as this not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar, Fatahul Qadir].
C207.9 If the sun eclipse and a funeral Salaah clash together then pray the funeral Salaah first [Johra, Bahar].
C207.10 There is no Jamaat for the moon eclipse even if the Imam is present, all people should pray on their own [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Alamgiri, Fatahul Qadir].

C208.0 Salaah is Mustahhab during times of difficulty or fear
C208.1 It is Mustahhab to pray two Rakat Salaah for the following situations; Hurricane, darkness during the day, fearful light during the night, strong storm, heavy snow, the sky goes red, lightning, thunder, plague or other disease spreading, earthquake, fear of an enemy or any other difficult situation. [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].